Cold War Overview

The whole of the Cold War - 1943 - 1991

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Origins of Cold War

Ideological gap:

- capitalism vs communism

- freedom vs control

Both Capitalists and Communists feared others policies and concepts


>one party, everything owned by state, equal wealth


>personal ownership and wealth, democracy

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Peace Conferences

  • Tehran 1943 - capital of Iran
  • Yalta February 1945- in South West Russia
  • Potsdam July 1945 - in Berlin, capital of Germany
  • These were set up to discuss how to approach the end of the war and to improve relations between the three super powers
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Rivalry Before Peace Conferences

Before 1943

- Bolshevik/ Communist revolution - led by Lenin - 1917. Capitalists intervened in Russian Civil War (1918-21) and helped non- communists. => Left USSR suspicious of West.

- Hitler - leader of Germany 1933. Wanted to expand into USSR. Stalin (1928 after Lenin) scared of Soviet invasion or Western alliance. West scared of Stalin and Hitler pact. 1939 Nazi- Soviet Pact - Stalin wanted part of Poland.

- Germany invaded USSR in 1941- Stalin forced into alliance with USA and UK 'GRAND ALLIANCE'

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Aim of Leaders at Peace Conferences


-stop Germany waging war ever

-restrict soviet influence

-do not repeat T.O.V. failings


-develop friendly relations with USSR to influence Stalin to contain communism spread

-establish independent democratic governments in E. Europe

-gain help of USSR in war against Japan

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Aim of Leaders 2


-be protected from future German invasions

-get compensation from Germany

-establish communist government in E.Europe

-have troops in E.Europe for negotiations

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- 1943

- Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt

- Britain and USA to invade Frances in May 1944 - created second front

- Soviet Union to go to war with Japan upon defeat of Germany

- United Nations Organization set up after war to promote world peace

- Parts of Poland added to USSR


Churchill distrusted Stalin. Stalin believed Soviet control of Poland would prevent invasions. Warsaw uprising - 1944, Polish defenceless against Soviet occupation

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- July 1945

- Churchill, Truman, Stalin ( Atlee half way through)

- Nazis trialled and executed in Nuremberg Trials - 1946

- Reparations sorted out: each ally takes from only their zone (but USSR has poorest part, so gave 1/4 of industrial equipment from western zones if they paid with raw materials like coal)

- Demilitarize Germany

- Ratified Germany and Berlin divide


Truman replace Roosevelt- hated Stalin. USA atom bomb- angry Stalin. Disagreed on Germany - USSR to disable/West to help. Free elections for E.E but Stalin refuse.  USSR troops in E.E. Countries and Communist gov in Poland- violation of Yalta agreements

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Who Was To Blame For Cold War?

Soviet Union to Blame:

> USSR was cold and harsh

> determined to spread communism as far as possible.                                          { West thought

> Refused to allow free elections and set up Soviet governments

Soviets thought:

> Russia had been invaded by West twice. Germany had to be severely punished.

> Wanted to create a buffer not to extend communism

> Truman's announcement of bomb meant USA would have upper hand in Arms Race


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Who Was To Blame For Cold War?

USA to Blame:

> USA failed to understand suffering of Soviet people during WW2

> Used atom bomb as a warning to USSR                                                           { USSR thought

> Only concerned with furthering own interests in E. Europe

USA thought:

> worried about Stalin's motives, especially after refusal of free elections in Poland

> did not want to punish Germany severely ( remembered T.O.V failing)

BOTH to blame:

> Due to a lack of mutual trust between two which lead to overreaction and aggressive stances at Potsdam

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Soviet Expansion in 1945

Soviet Union expanded because of:

- Memories of 1918 - 1939 - E.European countries hostile to USSR and fought against them

- Percentages Deal - Stalin and Churchill reached an understanding over influence in E.E  (end of WW2)

- Strategic Importance of Poland - USSR future dependent on friendly gov. in Poland. Throughout history Poland a corridor of attack on Russia so Stalin wanted a Communist gov.

- Security - USSR invaded from west twice. Stalin wanted a BUFFER ZONE of soviet/'friendly' states


West thought Stalin's motives were political - to spread Communism and expand Soviet empire throughout Europe.


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Soviet Control Over Expansions (1945-1947)

Soviets freed most of E.Europe from Nazis, but stayed in occupation of countries and established Communist governments. SATELLITE STATES  Established:

- Coalition governments- with communists

- Communists took over civil service, media, security and defence

- Opposition leaders arrested or forced to flee

- Elections fixed to ensure Communist support

Satellite states: Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia


- West thought Stalin was obviously spreading Communism

- Stalin thought he would only have support if he set up Soviet controlled Communist governments

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- 1947

- Communist Information Bureau

- to enable Soviet Union to co- ordinate communist parties in Europe

- Soviet response to Truman Doctrine

- introduced to ensure Communist countries in E.Europe:

~ followed Soviet aims in foreign policies

~ introduced Soviet style economic policies, e.g. state control of industry

- Used to purge members who disagreed with Moscow e.g Tito- Yugoslavia expelled from Cominform-1948 

- Encouraged rejection of Marshall Plan and loyalty to Soviets

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- 1949

- Council for Mutual Assistance

- Soviet response to Marshall Plan

- Supposed to be means by which Soviet Union could financially support countries in E. E. Was actually used by Soviet Union to :

~ Control economies of satellite states

~ give USSR access to their resources

~ encourage economic specialization within Soviet bloc e.g. Hungary - food and raw materials

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Truman Doctrine

- 1947 => Truman began US policy of containment. Because:

> USA and Truman believed USSR trying to spread Communism, through E.E then W.E, then world

> USA had atom bomb and economical strength to pressure Soviet Union and prevent more expansion


~ At Yalta, agreed britian would have influence over Greece.

~ Since 1944 Civil War - royalist gov. Vs Communist

~ Communists lost heavily in general election but continued Guerilla war with help of close communists

~ Britian provided troops and money to greece and turkey, but ran out in early 1947. USA stepped in to help

~ Truman announced US support in a speech in March 1947 (speech marked turning point in US foreign policies)

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Truman Doctrine Results


-  Greek government defeated

- Rivalry between USA and USSR increased. Truman said world was divided into 'two camps' - free     capitalists and unfree communists

- USA commited to policy of containment and more involved in European affairs

- USA introduced Marshall Plan (economic aid which backed policy of containment)

- Stalin sets up Cominform in 1947

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Marshall Plan

- 1947

- Truman did not want to commit US military to defence of Western Countries against spread of communism

- He believed economically troubled countries more likely to succumb to communsim

- Many European countries suffered badly because of WW2 and struggling to deal with damage caused

- Truman realised if he helped these countries recover economically they would not turn to communism

- Officially called the European Recovery Plan. Announced by US seceratry of state, General George Marshall, in June 1947

- Gave aid to all war-torn european countries to help them reequip their factories, revive agriculture and trade.

In the form of cash, machinery, food and technological assistance.  In return countries bought US goods and allowed US countries to invest in their industries.

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Marshall Plan Results


- 16 countries met and formed Organisation for European Economic Recovery (OEEC) to put plan into action

- By 1953 USA had provided $ 17 billion to help rebuild economies and raise living standards

- Europe became more firmly divided between West and East

- Stalin did not trust USA and did not want to show economical weakness so withdrew in the early stages. He prevented Eastern Bloc from becoming involved

- Stalin accussed USA of using the Plan for selfish interests ( to dominate Europe and boost US economy)



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Berlin Crisis 1948- 1949

- 1948: Stalin blockaded all routes by land and rail into West Berlin ( he was trying to force allies out of their sectors) - sparked first major crisis and worsened relations between Superpowers

JANUARY: US and British zones merge - Bizonia

MARCH: Soviets walk out of ACC ( allied control commisions) complaining Western attitudes -unworkable &

     Bizonia joins with French zone to make Trizonia

APRIL: Allied zones included in Marshall Plan- Economy in west much better then east, where stalin used resources for USSR benefit 

24 JUNE: Stalin accuse west of interfering in Soviet Zone. Started blockade. In reality he feared a strong democratic and reunited Germany on the borders of USSR would spread ideas to East Berlin.

- Feared rich West would be more appealing to East Berliners. Wanted to  force Westerns to get out

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Berlin Airlift

- Truman wanted to stand up to USSR. If western allies gave in Stalin would take over everywhere else

- The only way into Berlin was by air so Allies decided on an airlift - which would not lead to war (like forcing through with tanks would)

- Airlift began 28 June 1948 and ended May 1949. British nicknamed it 'Operation Plainfare'

- As a warning to USSR Truman ordered B-29 Atom Bombers to UK- within bombing range of Berlin.

- Stalin organised Soviet fly overs and awkwardly positioned weather ballons to hinder airlift. Didnt work.

- During airlift, Berliners supplied with everything from food and clothing to oil and building materials, but there was still a great shortage.

- On 12th May 1949, Stalin called off blockade. He had failed to starve allies out of Berlin

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Berlin Crisis Results

Crisis had three major effects:

1. Greatly increased East- West rivalry: Truman saw it a a victory, Stalin was humiliated and defeated.

2. Confirmed Germany division: => FDR: Federal Democratic Republic (WEST Germany) &GDR: German Democratic Republic (EAST Germany)

3. Led to the creation of NATO

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NATO and Warsaw Pact

North Atlantic Treaty Organization - April 1949

- Defensive alliance to prevent soviet expansion

- Stated members would join in a military alliance, where if one member was attacked all the rest would fight with them


Warsaw Pact - 1955

- Stalin saw NATO as an agrressive alliance aimed against soviet union.

- He set up Warsaw Pact as a rival organization to counter the threat of NATO

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Other Cold War Developments 1949- 1955

Chinese Revolution

- 1949, Chinese Communist Party ( Mao Zedong) take power in China. - signalled Cold War movement to Asia (USA developed Domino theory, which was confirmed by...)

Korean War

- 1950- 1955, North communist vs South democratic. N. Korea invaded south in 1950 -Domino theory in effect

Anti - Communism

- Encouraged by Senator Joe Macarthy in USA. Believed many US officials of being spys etc.

Soviet Atom Bomb

1949 - earlier than expected - started ARMS RACE

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Stalin Death


- After stalin death, no leader took over

- after two years Nikita Khrushchev became new USSR leader

- Within a year he had denounced Stalin and began 'de- Stalinization'

- Also began peaceful co- existence with West - Detente

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Hungarian Uprising Build Up

> In 1944, USSR invade Hungary whilst driving German troops back. Soviet troops stayed in Hungary despite ACC set up to run country bbut USSR most influential

> USSR forced a coalition gov. though lost heavily (Communist and Smallholders Party) - $300 mil to USSR

> Police - communist leader - arrested lots of Smallholder's members - relieved pressusre on Com Party

> Com gov. won elections, drew up new constitutions. Rakoski leader, imposed Stalin like rule - terror and bruatlity .Killed est. 2000.Attacked religions and education system.1949 - Cardinal imprisoned.

> Hungary member of Cominform and economy controlles by Comecon. Forced to trade with USSR on uneven terms. Hungarian communist party took orders from Moscow.

> 'Five Year Plan' by Rakoski failed and economy slumped. L.S. fall. Replaced by Imre Nagy by Soviet Union

> March 1953 - Stalin died. April & May 1955 - Nagy replaces Rakoski & Warsaw Pact. Feb 1956- Khrushchev secret speech (destalinization) July 1956 - Rakoski succeded by Erno Gero. October 1956 - student demonstrations

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Key Features of Hungarian Uprising

- 25th October 1956 , Khrushchev sends in troops and tanks to restore peace. Tanks kill 12

- Same day Gero forced to resign and Nagy takes over on 26th

- Nagy holds talks with USSR to get tanks withdrawn

- US Secratary of State said they will support Hungary, but Eisenhower (1953) did not nwant to commit USA.

- Nagy released political prisoners and published reforms- included withdrawal from Warsaw Pact. Political parties banned under rakoski reappeared and Nagy made coalition government

- Khrushchev did want to be seen as weak- Zedong was urging him to stop any deviation of Communism

- Decided nagy went too far, and 4 November 1956 - Soviet troops and tanks invaded

- Ceasefire decided on 10 November 1956, Janos Kadar new leader, Nagy shot in 1958

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Reasons For USSR Invasion of Hungary

1. Pressure from Mao Zedong and China to protect Communism from West

2. Khrushchev needed to show authority to Warsaw Pact

3. Feared loss of control over Eastern Europe

4. USA and UN involved in Suez crisis

5. Eisenhower in presidential elections - did not want to commit US and loose power

6. Damage to Warsaw Pact


- British and French troops landed at Suez Canal and Israeli troops invaded Egypt.                                           - USA keen to remove Allied troops                                                                                                                      - Fortunate diversion for Khrushchev

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Results of Hungarian Revolution

- Khrushchev kept control and a soviet backed leader (Kadar) installed

- Soviet Union maintained their empire and sent out warning to other satellite states

- Poland and Hungary made only slow and gradual reforms after 1956

- West saw Khrushchevs messages of peace as a sham and thought de-Stalinization would only go as far as Khrushchev wanted

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Causes of 1961 Berlin Crisis

 Even after crisis in 1948/1949 Berlin was an area of tension 

1. USSR wanted to remove Allies because it was area of prosperity, military strenth and Western success within communist territory - Berlin was a gap in the Iron Curtain.

2. Brain Drain - Lots of the more educated proffesionals and skilled craftsmen fled to West Berlin. This drain of labour and economic output threatened to ruin East Germany

3. USSR thought Allies used West Berlin for Espionage - Soviets argued that they needed to control movement and access into Berlin to combat spying.

4. 1958 - Stalin suggests making Berlin neutral - Eisenhower agrees to prevent war. 1959 Summit

5. 5 May 1960 U-2 spy plane shot down over Russia - Khrushchev demands apology and stopping of flights. Eisenhower stops flights but doesnt apoliogise. Khrushchev storms out of summit meeting in Paris 

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Berlin Wall (1961)

- Western Germany stronger (economically and military). Had joined NATO and European Economic Community

- Brain Drain - rapidlly increasing amount of refugees

- Khrushchev fixed a conference with yung, new US president Kennedy thinking he could push him around

- Vienna Summit- June 1961 - Khrushchev demands western forces out of Berlin. Kennedy refused and increased US defence spending. USSR did same in July

- 13 August 1961, Khrushchev closed borders between east and west Berlin with barbed wire, then a concrete wall untill the whole of West Berlin was encircled.

- USA and Allies did nothing to stop the building of the wall.

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1961 Crisis Results

- Peace maintained, but many families split

- Khrushchev felt he had beaten Kennedy because he stopped refugees and economy in East grew

- Although he did not get rid of allies, the crisis ended and tension in Europe was eased

- Wall became symbol of division for world, but constant reminder of fragility for Germany

- Kennedy visited West Germany in 1963 and gave speech about how the wall showed failures of Communism


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Arms Race

- When both countries had Atom bomb, governments started to spend more money on projects to build bigger, better weapons.

- Each side aimed to build enough to make 'first strike'

- Stalin shocked by US atom bomb so tranformed atomic research programme

- News of Soviet bomb shocked US public. Stalin ordered Hydrogen bomb

- Soviets increased their own spending and built H- bomb in mid 1953- few months after USA

- Space race also used as propoganda and espionage

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Arms Race 2


To try and intimidate each other and gain an advantage, the USA and USSR spent huge amounts developing weapons and their militaries:

1945 - USA - Atom bomb (1949 - USSR)

1952 - USA - Hydrogen bomb (1953 - USSR)

1957 - USSR - ICBM, long range missile (USA - 1958)

         - USSR - Sputnik, 1st satellite (USA - 1958)

1961 - USSR - First man in space (USA - 1969, first man on moon)

1963 - Detene - Nuclear test ban treaty etc.

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Cuban Missile Crisis - Build Up

1959 - Cuban revolution - Fidel Castro overthrew Batista

Castro rejects US businesses and investments

USA reject Cuban exports - sugar

USSR see a way to gain influence in Caribbean - offer to buy Cuban good

USSR keen to challenge USA and outmanoeuvre Kennedy

Khrushchev needs to deflect critisms of his failures in USSR

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Bay Of Pigs

April 1961

- Before end of presidency Eisenhower sanctioned scheme to train Cuban exiles, by CIA, to invade Cuba

- When Kennedy took over he carried on the scheme. Team called 'La Brigada'

- the aim was to remove Castro, by causing a national uprising


- CIA believed Cubans would help exiles, but they supported popular Castro and helped defeat La Brigada

- Castro knew about invasion form exiles in Miami

- La Brigada's ships sunk, and army heavily out numbered.

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Results of Bay Of Pigs

- Castro's position in Cuba strengthened. Seen as an example to developing world

-  Castro pushed further twards USSR

- Developing countries saw USA as an imperiaist nation

- Humiliation for USA and Kennedy

- Kennedy determined to resist growth of communism to Americas

- USA begin Operation Mongoose - covert operations to remove Castro

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Cuban Missile Crisis - Build Up

- B.O.Ps pushed Castro towards USSR and he declared conversion to Communism at end of 1961

- Same time Khrushchev installed military adivsors and combat units onto Cuba

- Khrushchev was concerned with US bases in Italy and Turkey

- Also he could claim to be defending Cuba from future invasions by USA

- Septmber 1962 ~ Soviet start installing IRBMs which could reach mid USA states within 20 mins

- 14th October - U2 spy plane pictures missile bases being built - operational in November

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Key Features of Cuban Missile Crisis

13 days in October

- When JFK learnt of weapons he set up ExComm to decide on action takens

- Desicion was to place a naval blockade (quarantine) around Cuba to prevent Soviet supplies

- As JFK spoke on TV, US forces prepared  themselves for action

- JFK informed USSR of bloackade, and said if a ship carrying missile equipment came through, they  would be turned back

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13 Days Of Cuban Missile Crisis

22 October: Kennedy on TV

24 October: 18 USSR ships turn around to avoid confrontation

26 October: Khrushchev sends Kennedy a letter, saying he would remove missiles if USA removed blockade and didn't invade Cuba

27 October: Khrushchev send 2nd letter saying he would remove missiles if USA remove theirs in Turkey

28 October: Kennedy chooses 1st Letter. Khrushchev accepted. USA agreed to remove missiles from Turkey, but much later on and secretly

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Results of Cuban Missile Crisis

- Kennedy seen to win and perception was that Khrushchev had backed down.

- Many leading politicians in USSR thought Khrushchev should not have backed down - especially Mao Zedong - and wanted to remove him

- Khrushchev saw it as a victory, cos he had save Cuba from invasion, and missiles in Turkey would be removed

- Super powers had almost gon to war, so Hotline set up to prevent the same situation

- Detente

Partial Test Ban Treaty 1963 - stop nuclear testing in atmosphere

Nuclear No- Proliferation Treaty 1968 - stopped evelopment of nuclear weapons

- Relations improved - USA sold Grain to USSR

- France withdrew from NATO in1966 because did not want to be involved in nuclear war

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Opposition to Soviet Control - Czechoslovakia

- Antonin Novotony- leader since 1957 - unpopular becaus ea hard-line communist

- Slow to follow de-Stalinizationand release political prisoners

- Czech economy is serious decline in 1960s and led to a fall in living standards 1962-63 national income fell

- 1965 reforms (New Economic Model) unsuccessful- produced to many consumer goods

- October 1967 - reformers challenge Novotony's leadership at Centeral Committee of Communist Party

- December 1967- Alexander Dubcek invites Brezhnev to Prague, who replaces him as leader of communist party in Czechoslovakia with Dubcek on  January 5th 1968

- March 1968 - Novotony resigns from presidency - replaced by Ludvik Svoboda

- Svoboda supported Dubcek's reform programmes- Prague Spring


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Prague Spring Reforms

- Started by Dubcek in Spring 1968 to remove the worst parts of communism (socialism with a human face) Reforms included:                                                                                                                                               > Greater political freedom, free speech and abolition of sensorship                                                                 > Reduction in the powers of the secret police to imprison with out trial                                                           > Removal of travel restrictions and trading with west                                                                                      > Creation of works councils representing the workforce to improve conditions                                               > 10 year programme for political change that would bring about democratic elections and multi party state 

- Dubceks reforms encourages opponents of communism and led to demands of even more radical reforms 

- USSR suspicious of changes for several reasons - czechoslovakia most central in Warsaw Pact, ideas in czechoslovakia might spread o other countries, Czechoslovakia becoming close to Western Germany

- Brezhnev came under pressure form East Germany leader and polish leader to stop reforms

- Soviet invasion followed the build up of tension between the Warsaw Pact countries and Czechoslovakia

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Soviet Invasion

June 1968 - Soviet tanks remained in Czechooslovakia after Warsaw pact military exercises

July 1968 - Brezhnev meets with Warsaw Pact countries who are concerened with Dubcek's actions. Brezhnev meets with Dubcek a few days later who agrees to remain in Warsaw pact if his reforms are allowed - Brezhnev reassured

3 August 1968 - Bratislava Declaration signed -shows support for communism

 August 1968 - Tito (Yugoslavia) given enthusiastic reception in Czechoslovakia

15- 18  August 1968 - Politburo meeting. Brezhnev telss Dubcek his actions will bring down Warsaw Pact

20 August 1968 - USSR invade Czechoslovakia

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Key Features of Soviet Invasion

~ 20- 21 August 1968 hundreds and thousands of Warsaw Pact troops invade

~ Guerilla warfare by Czech citizens to try and stop invading forces

~ There was no armed resistance by Czechoslovakian army, so less than 100 people were killed

~ Dubcek and other leaders were arrested and taken to Moscow, where forced to accept end of Czechoslovakian reforms. Hard line leaders took over after that


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Consequences of Czechoslovakia Invasion

The invasion had a large effect on Czechoslovakia, the USSR, Warsaw Pact and the Cold War:

Czechoslovakia:   Demonstrations carrie don until April 1969. Dubcek was forced to resign for Czech Communist Party. He was replaced by a strict Communist ruler - Gustav Husak

Soviet Union: Brezhnev Doctrine - redefined Communism as one party system and made all members part of Warsaw Pact. Also invasion sent out message to rest of Warsaw Pact not to relax communist rules

Warsaw Pact: Some communist countries began to move away form Moscow. Albania left in 1968 and Romania refused to supply troops. USSR were to preoccupied with Czechoslovakia to react

Cold War: Temporarily worsened relations between East and West, but Detente continued after a slight gap. USA was too preoccupied with Vietnam War and presidential elections. Invasion increased rivalry between China and USSR - China critised amount of force used aginst a fellow communist nation 

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Developments After Cuban Missile Crisis

- After Cuban Missile Crisis there were moves to improve relations and relax tension between superpowers => Detente

- Hotline meant communication was quicker

- Test ban treaty (1963) showed a willingness to look at issue of developing nuclear weapons

- Brezhnev Doctrine - a capitalist country threatening a communsist country intervened by all Warsaw Pact

- Six Day War of 1967 - Israel(USA) beat Arabs (USSR) but did not endanger relations

- Vietnam War - USA in south could not beat North Vietnam (USSR supported). By 1968 USA seeking to end war. Nixon (January 1969) wanted to improve USSR relations to speed up end of war

- Nixon visited Moscow in 1972 to say he wanted to improve relations and agreed to take part in European Security Conference, which led to Helsinki Agreements

- Brezhnev played go between in USA and Hanoi (cap. N.Vietnam) and peace treaty in 1973



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Talks held in Helsinki and Vienna produced first ccords ( SALT 1) in May 1972


> Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM)  - only allowed 100 missiles in just two sites

> Interim Agreement on Offensive Arms - 5 year freeze on total number of ICBM adn SLBM launchers

> Bombers, MIRVs (multiple independently targetable re -entry vehicles) and development of new weapons NOT limited

> Both allowed satellites to check

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Middle East and Detente

October 1973 Arab-Israeli War

Syria and Egypt (USSR supplied) surprise attacks on Israel (USA supplied)

Israelis recover and regain initiative adn sent replacement equipment by USA

Brezhnev puts forward joint USA-USSR force plan to save Egyptian army form Israelis. USA don't accept and suggest alternative - UN peacekeeping force of non-nuclear countries to intervene in conflit - ends 24 October 1973

Nixon visists Moscow in July 1974 and two leaders decide to:                                                              

~ Continue removing danger of war ~ Limit and eventually end Arms Race ~ Eliminate sources of international tension and military conflict ~ relax tensions throughotu world ~ Develop broad, mutually beneficial co-operation in commercial, economic, scientific, technical and cultural fields.

Encouraging consequences after Moscow: 17 July 1975, 3 US astronauts and 2 USSR cosmonauts meet in space- symbolic hand shake shows sporting and cultural alliances

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Helsinki Agreements

After Nixon and Brezhnev's Moscow meeting there were continuing attemps to keep detente developing. The helsinki agreements of 1975 showed this...

USA and USSR with 33 other nations, made declarations about 3 distinct issues (called baskets by signatories {signatories- parties which have signed an agreement):

SECURITY - recognition of Europe's fronteirs. USSR accept existence of West Germany

CO-OPERATION - call for closer economic, social and cultural links to lead to closer political agreements

HUMAN RIGHTS - each signatory agreed to respect human rights and basic freedoms e.g. thought, speech religion and freedom from unfair arrest

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SALT 2 (1974 - 1979)

After 1977 President Carter keen to link Human Rights  to Arms Limitations to put pressure on USSR

Following agreements at Helsinki, he sent a letter to USSR dissident (someone who disagrees with a gov.)

Brezhnev saw it as gross interferance with Soviet internal affairs and said so at Helsinki. Groups were made to monitor USSR adherence to Helsinki agreements (Helsinki Groups). They complained with Carter in 1975 of violations - embarressed Brezhnev, but Arms limitations carried on.

SALT 2 final agreements (June 1979):                                                                                                               

~ Limit on nuclear delivery vehicles ~ Limit on MIRVs ~ Ban on onstruction of new ICBM launchers ~ Limits on deployment of new strategic weapon ~ SALT 2 last until 1985

But ratification of treaty did not happen because US congress didnt believe results could be verified and concerns over USSR troops in CUBA. Late 1979 NATO missiles in Europe.

Detente ended when USSR invaded Afghanistan 25th December 1979.

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Afghanistan Invasion Build Up

> 27 April 1978 -People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA - communist) overthrow Afghanistani gov.

> Nur Muhammed Taraki (Sec. of PDPA) new President and imposes Communist style reforms for first 18 months: included changes in marriage customs, land reforms and elite Muslims (intellectuals) thrown in jail

> September 1979 - Hafizullah Amin, deputy Prime Minister, seizes power but still instabilty in country because of anti - muslim policies. Thousands of Afghan Muslims join mujahideen - guerrilla movement on holy mission for Allah - and want to overthrow Amin gov. so declare a jihad (holy war) on Amin supporters

> Soviet Military assistance programme, started i n1978, increased and Amin dependent on USSR military and equipment. But Amin wanted to improve links with USA.

> Brezhnev concerned about growing power and spread of Islamic Fundamentalism - shun Westerns and follow strict Islamic laws. UUSR saw fudamentalism as a great threat...

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Invasion of Afghanistan

Between 25 December 1979 and 1 January 1980 more than 50,000 Soviet troops sent to Afghanistan to restore order and protect PDPA from mujahideen. USSR state acting on 1978 Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Good Neighbourliness former President Taraki had signed

27 December 1979- Amin shot and replaced by Babrak Kamal, who was in exile in Moscow. Depended solely on USSR support. Many Afghan soldiers deserted Kaml gov. to join mujahideen, so USSR troops help 


Carter already under pressure in November 1979 after US embassy staff held hostage in Iran. Many critisied him, so he decided to take a firmer approach to USSR

- Carter Doctrine - policy stating USA would usemilitary force to defend national intrestes in Persian Gulf (OIL). Also promised military aid to all countries bordering Afghanistan. Carter proposed creation of quick strike force (Rapid Deployment Force) plus draft of 18- 20 year olds and CIA increase of intelligence gathering activities.

Also asked for delay of SALT 2 treaty and shunned USSR. Furthermore gave assistance to mujahideen. DETENTE DEAD BY 1980. Boycott of Moscow olympics and held Liberty Bell Classic instead.

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President Reagan

Ronald Reagan defeats Carter 1980 presidential elections - wants harder line with USSR

Attitude toward USSR:                                                                                                                                  - Less emphasis on Human rights, more on US defence spending. Wanted to raise USA position in World. Also wanted to eradicate Vietnam War, hostages and loss of prestige to USSR in Africa + Central America embarrassments. Fighting communism main emphasis of policy - not intimidated by weapons (lots) 

Defence Policy:                                                                                                                                              - USA defence programme 1981 - 19871 cost more than a trillion dollars (stealth bomber, trident subs, nuetron bomb developments) People thought thy cold win limited nuclear war => Nuclear Utilization Target Selection (NUTS) .... ALSO: USA to place cruise missiles in Western Europe to combat USSR missiles in western Soviet Union. Both countries accept MAD theory

- Reagan prepared to discuss arms limitations - was in a position of strength (USSR economic problems) 

- November 1981 - 'zero option' cancel deployment of missiles if USSR do same. USSR reject.


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Star Wars Programme

Despite 'evil empire' speech to House of commons on 8 June 1982, Reagan continued arms reductions negotiations - START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks). Poland complicated things:

USA decided to give secret assistance to Polish Worker's Trade Union movement Solidarność (solidarity which was banned in 1982 and leaders imprisoned. USA critisised Brezhnev and Polish gov. for heavy handed approach and banned all hi- tech trade with USSR. Relations worsened when USSR delegate walked out of START talks in 1983. Reagan announced Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) - known as Star Wars Programme


1. Missile launched                                                                                                                                              2. Satellite detects missile anmd feeds data to laser                                                                                         3. Laser beam directed at mirror in orbit                                                                                                            4. Beam reflected to battle satellite                                                                                                                     5. Beam directed at missile                                                                                                                                    6. Missile destroyed

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Star Wars 2

23 March 1983, President Reagan announced SDI - plan for a ground adn space- based, laser armed, anti ballistic missile system, which would create a shield for US land based missiles

27 March 1983 - Andropov (USSR leader) accused  USA of preparing a first- strike attack on USSR and Reagan inventing new plans for Nuclear War.

Andropov couldn't afford to spend anymore money on armaments to compete with USA

Part of Reagans plan was for USSR to try and compete, then collapse

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Developing Relations 1980 -1985

- Brezhnev dies 1982

- New leader Andropov dies soon after in 1984

- Super power relationships fluctuate:

> 1983 USA sell grain to USSR

- Cherneko succeds Andropov and announces Boycott of L.A. Olympics (states USA are manipulating them for propaganda) USA see it as a retaliation of Moscow games - USSR held Friendship Games - DIVIDED

- 1948 - hint of Detent being rekindled lots of fear for NUTS and anti- nuclear demonstrations

- March 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev appointed new Soviet leader. Prepared to adopt drastic policies to improve Superpower relations, because otherwise Soviet Union would collapse

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Gorbachev's Role in Cold War Ending

Gorbachev decided to call off Cold War unilaterally. His abandonment of Brezhnev doctrine caugth West and USA off guard, and was clearly a radical change

He did it because Cold War was draining USSR's wealth and Soviet Union could not continue to develop economically and increase living standars - stopping unrest in Counrty. Gorbachev also wanted to reform Communist Party in Soviet Union - NOT STOP IT! He had 3 key stratergies:

1. Initiated sweeping reforms in Communist Party and nSoviet system: perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openess)                                                                                                                                      2. Ended Arms Race with USA and signed various arms reduction treaties                                              3. Stopped USSR interference in Eastern European sattelite states

Gorbachev wanted to maintain Soviet's role as a super power. He knew he had to win over the Soviet people and show the world that he would not threaten World Peace.

Gorbachev roamed Soviet Union talking to citizens. He released dissidents from jail, published banned books and lifted censorship. But glasnost lead to people demanding more radical changes and criticised Gorbachev.

Gorbachev gained support from reforms and advancements with glasnost adn perestroika


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End of Arms Race

Arms Limitations talks renewed after Gorbachev declaired co-operation and summit meeting between Gorbachev and Reagan held in Geneva November 1985

Though nothing was concrete, the Geneva accord was set up: > speed up arms talks

> work towards abolition of chemical weapons

> be more active on issue of human rights

Both leaders promised to meet again in near future - Meeting set up October 1986 in Iceland


Collapsed after two leaders tentatively agreed to large arms reductions, but disagreed on restricting of SDI (star wars).  Gorbachev said talks broke down over fundamental differences between superpowers.


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Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) of 1987

Third summit held in December 1987, and a breakthrough was acheived with agreement of INF. Treaty eliminated nuclear and convential ground- launched ballistic and cruise missiles.

By treaty deadline, 1 June 1991, over 2500 weapons had been destroyed ( USA over half of amount of USSR)

Also, both nations allowed to inspect other country. Both leaders stressed INF was only first step to more radical agreements regarding long range nuclear weapons.

Hopefully this treaty would be signed in Moscow in 1988


After INF, the final summit meeting was held in Moscow May 1988. by this time, much of the West was taken over by 'Gorbymania'. Furthermore, it was evident that the wives of Reagan(Nancy) and Gorbachev(Raisa) had played a role in pushing the two leaders together.

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Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE)

At Moscow summit, there were more arms control talsks and more troop reductions in Europe in 1989. Also Gorbachev's promise to withdraw troops from Afghanistan showed peaceful intentions.

Moscow summit led to Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE) which was signed by NATO and Warsaw Pact reprisentatives in November 1990.

Agreement to reduce number of tanks, missiles, aircraft and other forms of non- nuclear military hardware held by signatory states.

New US president George Bush Senior and Gorbachev announced end of Cold War at a summit in Malta in 1989.


When Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwaiot in 1990, the two super powers acted closely and followed directives of the United Nations and formed a co-alition force

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START Talks 1990 - 1991

At Washington summit of 31 MAy - 3 June 1990, Bush and Gorbachev discussed Strategic Arms Reductions and finally signed the Treaty for the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START 1), on 31 July 1991. It called for reduction in strategic nuclear forces over 7 years to:

>1600 Strategic Nuclear Delivery Vehicles and 6000 warheads

>A limit of 4900 on Ballistic weapons

This meant reducing 25 to 35 % of all their strategic war heads. Bush and Gorbachev signed treaty with pens made from scrapped missiles

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Collapse of the Soviet Union

Gorbachev showed that he was prepared to make deals with USA to help USSR economy (feeling strain of supporting Eastern Europe). He also rejected Brezhnev Doctrine and in 1989 accepted Warsaw Pact countries could change without outside interference (SINATRA DOCTRINE)

Changes in Eastern Europe:                                                                                                                       Reforms started in Poland in 1989. Hungary 1990. The key to changes in Eastern Europe in 1989 was Hungary's decision to open it's border with Austria in May of that year. This meant a hole in the Iron curtain, and a way for East Germans to move to West Germany.

East Germany and West Germany:
Demonstrations in Germany in 1989 and calls for change to system of government. Gorbachev visited East Germany in October 1989 and informed political leaders that Soviet Union would not get involved in Germany's political affairs.                                                                                                                   Demonstrations continued and, 4 November, the largest demostration in East Germany's history, over 1 million people in E. Berlin demanding democracy and free elections. On 9 November, E. German government announced opening of border crossings into West Germany.                                                                          People bagan to dismantle Berlin Wall. West and East Germany formally reunited on 3 October 1990. New Germany joined NATO and Warsaw Pact dissolved in 1991.

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Collapse of Soviet Union 2

Events in Eastern Europe had a catastrophic impact on the Soviet Union. Many nationalities and ethnic groups saw how satellite states were able to break away from Moscow.

In 1990 Baltic states declared themselves independent and led to demands for independence within Soviet Union.

There were fears that the country was about to disintergrate, and Gorbachev found that he was opposed to most by most sections of Soviet society.

There was an attempted coup d'etat (armed rebellion against existing government) in August 1991 which was defeated by Boris Yeltsin (president of Russian Socialist Republic) and though Gorbachev was restored he had lost authority.

Gorbachev resigned in December 1991, and the Soviet Union split into several independent states. The Cold War had officially ended.

In 1990 Gorbachev won Nobel Peace Prize. His policies had reduced fears of USA. Gorbachev and Reagan became personal friends and made significant agreements. These agreements meant USA was no longer regarded as a major threat. INF was especially important, removal of troops in Afghanistan, not interfering in anti - communist revolutions and glasnost all combined to end the Cold War.

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Thank you alisha :) **

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