Cold War Crises

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Korean War 1950-53 (1)

Background:

  • After WW2 Korea was liberated by US and USSR. The North part was liberated by the USSR, therefore it was Communist. The south part was liberated by US so it wasn't Communist. 
  • There was a lot of bitter hostility and the ideals of Communism were enforced by the North Part and the ideals of anti-Communism was enforced by South Korea. 
  • The current border was at the 38th parallel. 
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Korean War 1950-53 (2)

  • By 1950 the already bitter hostility spilled into open warfare. 
  • The North Korean Troops outnumbered the south Korean Troops. 
  • South Korea was pushed back into a tiny south-east corner, containing Pusan.
  • Truman sent advisors, supplies and warships to help South Korea.
  • He put a lot of pressure on the UN to get involved
  • When China became Communist in 1949, US blocked its entry to the UN, the USSR also walked out in protest. This allowed the UN to pass a vote to assist South Korea in restoring peace and order.
  • The UN troops consited mainly of US troops, but other countries were also involved.
  • By September 1950 the UN forces stormed ashore at Inchon and also lead an advance at Pusan.
  • Within a few weeks the North Koreans were driven back past the 38th parralel.
  • General MacArthur, who was leading the assault wanted to continue past the 38th parralel and advanced well into North Korea, pushing them back into a tiny area near the Yalu river and the North Korean/Chinese border by October 1950.
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Korean War 1950-53 (3)

  • However in late October, 200,000 Chinese troops joined the North Korean forces.
  • The Chinese had modern tanks and planes, as they were sponsored by the USSR.
  • The UN forces were pushed back into South Korea and resettled on the 38th parralel after recovering.
  • MacArthur wanted to use Nuclear weapons on China but Truman felt that saving South Korea was good enough.
  • MacArthur was returned to US and in July 1951 there was an armistice but the fighting continued till 1952. The final armisitce was singend in July 1953.
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Korean War 1950-53 (4)

  • Relations between China and the U.S.A. remained bad until mid 1970s.
  • SEATO (South Atlantic Treaty Organisation) was founded
  • Relations between U.S.A. and Russia improved (The Thaw 1953 - 1959)
  • Korea was still divided (200,000 dead and 5 million homeless)
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