US Foreighn Policy In The 1950s: Background
- Reports sent back on the US Cold War Policy, an important document was made known as the NSC-68.
..... The Country Saw it in Biopolar terms.
- The Situation of the Cold War had been brought about by the USSR's aim to extend there authority over both Europe and Asia...Hence World Conquest.
- The US Policy would ensure non-communist regimes were Viable
- Military Action would be considered to meet the threat of Communism were needed.
- Both Conventional and Nuclear weapons were being prepaired.
Back Ground 2:
- US Policy of containment focused on the exsistence of Soviet Uninon and containing communism in it's ALREADY exsisting borders.
- Communism NEEDED to be confonted and not ingnored and pushed back to safeguard
- They therefore needed to be more aggresive.
Why Did The US Believe It Was Losing The Cold War
- Communist takeover of China in September Made It Seem like the tide was turning in a favour of a Communist world.
- Why? Second world war left China without anyform of control.
- By 1949 Communist People Republic Of China were strong enough to push Nationalism out.
.....Appeard clear evidence that Stalins work was spreading.
- USA had always seen them selves as guardians of China and had failed it's role.
Part 2:Why Did The US Believe It Was Losing The Co
Korea and Vietnam
- Secure Unifications Collapsed when the Communist forces invaded the Capitalist South.
.... Again clear evidence that Stalins work was spreading.
- The USA had always been very critical of Imperlism in Vietnam however, if France did not regain control Communism would takes it's place.
- Vietnam was also in a secure place to recieve Communist back-up and support.
.... This would create the Dominoe Effect
Part 3: Why Did The US Believe It Was Losing The C
- USA was the only country which was in power of Nuclear Power.
- This power was shatter when the Soviet Unioin annouced it had an atomic bomb
- This then began the ' Missile Gap' which arose the fears of Soviets bombing capabilitys.
- Made the USA increase military spending.
Responces To The Loss Of Confidence 1
The Red Scare And McCarthyism
- Fear that the USA was being undermined by the enemy withing
.... McCarthyism was to represent this fear.
- High suspicions that were communist spies within the US government gained alot of intrest.
- Set up a Loyalty review bored to check up in Govenment emplyoees, of whiched 3000 workers were sacked
- The US senate set up it's own House Un-American Activities Commitee to put pressure on those called as witness of communists.
-Alger Hiss; State Department Official, was convicted of communist, the US public seen this as clear evidence of Commmunist underground.
Responces To The Loss Of Confidence 2
- There fears were confirmed by the uncovering of a spyring that passed atomic secrets to the USSR
Part 2: Responces To The Loss Of Confidence
- McCarthy used is postion of Head Of The Minor Senate Commitee to himulate witnesses, and target individuals.
- However McCarthys influences were shot lived
- As McCarthy was revealed a liar and a crook.
Part 3:Responces To The Loss Of Confidence
US Foreign Policy In The 1950's
....Had to harden against Communism in this time.
- Dwight Eisenhower was elected president in 1952, Truman had been longly critised for being soft on Communism, It was thought that Eisenhower would adopt a firmer line.
- Eisenhowers secetary of state John Foster Dulles suggest to face up to Communism they had to build up there Nuclear Weapons.
- Other would see then that any agressive actions, would lead to Massive Realiation
...The focus now was on Nuclear arms rather than Conventional arms.
- It was thought that the US wouldnt only be able to contain Communism but Roll it back as well.
...However this would only work as a Detterent, if the enemys thought the USA was prepaired to use them.
US attitudes at home and abroad were more strident in the 1950's than any other era.
- Vulnerability was felt in the USA by 2 Key Influences.
- The percieved strength of the USSR compared to that of the USA... Though Communist strength in the USA was never significant enough to make an impact.
- The percieved technological and military superiority of the USSR... Though this was only ever an Illusion
However, these factors were to have a long term impact on the USA.