Cold War

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Conferences 1943 & 45

Teheran: 1943

  • FDR, Churchill and Stalin
  • Agreed: 2nd front, Japan, UN, USSR get some Poland
  • Disagreed: delay 2nd front, churchill hating on the commies

Yalta: 1945

  • FDR, Churchill and Stalin
  • Agreed: Japan, Split Germany, Nazi trials, elections, sphere of influence
  • Disagreed: Stalins power in Europe

Potsdam: 1945

  • Atlee, Truman and Stalin
  • Agreed: Split Germany, USSR land, demilitarisation, democracy, reparations, ban Nazis, UN
  • Disagreed: Germany's payment, free elections
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Expansion 1945-49

  • Control: Stalin was taking over liberated coutries in Europe, using terror and comecon & cominform to make a sphere of influence and satallite states
  • Truman Doctrine: Truman promised to contain communism and stop its spread, Marshall Aid was this plan in action, offering money to war wrecked countries (Stalin forced no)
  • Safety: USSR had suffered from Germany, Hungary & Romania so wanted a buffer zone in Poland, they had been promised percentages by Churchill and a sphere of influence
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Berlin Blockade 1948

  • Causes: USSR and allies disagreed of Germany's power, Berlin was important strategically and Berlin was a window for communist to the west. 1947 Bizonia was formed and 1948 Trizonia with plans to form a new currency which, on top of the marshall stuff, scared USSR
  • Features: All road, rail and canal links to the Western parts of Berlin were cut off, Stalin hoped to starve them out and knew that the west wouldn't attack, however, USA and UK begin an airlift, flying in 4000 supplies for 10 months, stalin called off the blockade.
  • Effects: greatly increased East-West rivalry, confirmed the divisions of Germany and Berlin as well as the creation of NATO in 1949
  • NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was the military counter to the Truman Doctrine, with around 15 members each member promised to help defend if attacked with nuclearness
  • Warsaw Pact: USSR counter to NATO, as it was seen as aggressive and wouldnt let USSR join, was set up in 1955 to increase power over satallites by Khrushchev (Stalin died in 53)
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Hungarian Uprising 1956

  • Khrushchev took over with a secret speech criticising Stalin and promising change, allowing a Polish leader to return and start an uprising
  • Causes: Rakosi had a harsh regime with a stalinlike approach but bad economy, Nagy replaced him because of Malenkov but Rakosi took over again, Nagy was eventually put back in due to demonstrations that had been opposed by soviet troops
  • Features: Nagy thought he had US support so started releasing prisoners,and attempted to leave the Warsaw Pact, so Khrushchev sent in 200,000 troops and 6000 tanks to crush'em after pressure from Mao and, Hungarians had no western support because of the Suex crisis, Kadar replaced Nagy and gets him killed
  • Effects: 7000 troops were killed, as were 20,000 rebels. Kadar, a hard-line communist was reinstated, it was seen as a Soviet win and a warning to the WP, but Khrushchev was seen as no different from Stalin, despite his pretty secret speech.
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Berlin Crisis 1961 and Arms race 1945-60

Berlin Crisis

  • Causes: Tension was already there, the city was divided, West was being built up and the uprising had scared people in leaving causing a brain drain, after a U2 spyplane was caught over USSR, peace talks with Eisenhower stopped and Kennedy's investments in defence made Khrushchev build a big *** wall in Berlin
  • Features and Effects: Families, buisnesses and groups were divided by the wall, as many tried to escape the USA used the wall as propaganda, but soviets saw it a win

Arms Race

  • MAD Theory was developed in the 1950s, causing paranoia and tension
  • Space Race was like the Arms race, but in Space
  • Landmarks:
    • 45: USA get A bomb
    • 49: USSR get A bomb
    • 52/3: H Bomb
    • 56 Spyplane
    • 57 Sputnik
    • 58 US Sat.
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Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

  • Causes: tension from everything else, Batista lets US nationalise Cuban buisnesses, Castro overthrows so US cut off trade and becomes commie-ish, CIA spends million training exiles to start a rebellion in Cuba and land on the Bay of Pigs, fails, USSR make missile bases in Cuba, caught by US Spyplanes
  • Features: JFK called 12 advisers and decides to block Cuban waters, troops are put on hihgest level of alert and Khrushchev sends some supplies over, 2 demands are made: remove missiles if blockade stops or remove missiles if US take away Turkish missiles, Kennedy accepts 1st in public & 2nd in secret.
  • Effects: Telephone hotline between White House and Kremlin set up, US sold grain to USSR, test ban treaty signed restricting testing of nuclear weapons, France leave NATO in 1966- Europeans upset with Kennedy, Khrushchev argued success but sacked in 1964.
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Prague Spring 1968

  • Causes: Novotny was harsh and would not destalinise, economy and stndrd of living poor because of no raw materials, New Ec Model failed- Breznhev saw opposition and Novotny replaced with Dubcek as 1st Sec of Com Party, Svoboda takes over as President.
  • Features: Dubcek created reforms as "Socialism With a Human Face", included political freedom, less sec police power, travel and trade with W. Germany, work councils, elections and multi-party state- insist that they won't leave WP after Hunagry.
  • Backlash: USSR worried ideas would spread and strengthen W. Germany, send in troops to protect Czech., Dubcek and Svobda sign Moscow protocol after many people were barricading and arguing with soldiers, someon set fire to themselves but reforms stop.
  • Effects Husak replaced Dubcek, a hardline communist, the WP warned but Romania didnt send in troops and Albania leave, Bhreznev Doctrine defines communism as a one party system, detente continued because the West didnt care because of Vietnam.
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Detente 1963-79

  • 1963 Hotline set up and Test ban treaty signed
  • 1965 Vietnam war, USSR and USA are at war by proxy
  • 1968 Brezhnev doctrine as a result of Prague Spring
  • 1972 Nixon's policy of linkage to help Vietnam, increased talks and visits to China and Moscow, SALT I agreed Anti Ballistic Missile, Treaty 5 year freexe on ICBM & SLBM launchers, bombers MIRVs & satellites not limited
  • 1973 USSR help Syria & Egypt against Israel who was supported by USA
  • 1974 Nixon's Moscow visit, agree to disarmement & end arms race, SALT II
  • 1975 Space Link-up as astronauts shake hands, very symbolic, Helsinki Agreements 35 countries agree on security in Europe, economic/scientific/cultural links and human rights
  • 1977 Carter comes to power and openly criticises USSR human rights
  • 1979 SALT II ends, agreeing on limits on strategic nuclear delivery vehicles, limits on MIRV, ICBM construction ban, development limitations until 1985, NATO place missiles near USSR
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Afghanistan 1979

  • Causes: communism came in 1978 and created PDPA, islamic groups threatened by reforms to marriage and land, mujahideen gurills movement want to remove Amin with USA support, threatening USSR's neighbours and Islam within USSR
  • Features: 50,000 USSR troops sent in 25 Dec-1 Jan, Amin shot on 17 Dec and thousands of Afghans desert, 85,000 troops needed to maintain power, USSR failing
  • Effects: weakening USSR ecnomy and morale, Carter Doctrine promising to protect Persian Golf and aid neighbours, build up US aemy, delaying SALT II & trade, ending dentente and boycotting Moscow Olympic games, so USSR won all the things
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Reagan and Gorbachev 1980+

  • Reagan was tough,he believed in NUT theory, tried to place more missiles near USSR, invested trillion in defence, talked about evil empire & SDI
  • Gorbachev took over in1985 after unsettling Soviet leaderships, introduced glasnost (openness) & perestroka (restructuring politcal system), more civil liberties and less arms
  • Reykjavik 1985 arms reductions agreed but SDI wouldnt be dropped
  • Geneva 1986 talk of making the world safer but SDI wasn't dropped
  • INF 1987 large missiles banned, allow to check on ech other, Gorby a hero
  • CFE 1989 NATO and WP reduce conventional weapons, ending cold war
  • START 1990-1 nukes reduced to 1600 vehicles & 4900 ballistic missiles
  • Sinatra Doctrine late 1980s, Eastern European countries have rebellion from workers after Glasnost so democratic parties were allowed to be formed, a non communist party elected in Poland, free elections in Hungary and USSR troops withdrew, Austrian border opened up, Berlin wall comes down, WP dissolved 1991, Gorby helped by Yeltsin and Russian republicans, forced to start a multi party system, collapsing the USSR
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