Alaska- Tundra Region
Covers 80,000km2 - US government wants to develop the resources.
Challenges to Humans:
Permafrost, Short Summers, Surface Thaw, Blizzards, Low Temperatures.
Humans adapted to environment:
Inuits only take what they need to survive, sustainable - don't exploit.
Exploitation in the past:
17th Century- Whaling, sealing and gold mining.
20th Century- Fishing, oil mining and Tourism.
WW2- Trans Alaskan Highway, weapon transport.
Post Cold War- Alaska close to Russia- military exploitation.
Alaska- Tundra Region- Continued...
50 years to return to original state, limited plant species.
Pipes raised above ground (insulated), small buildings elevated, icr-pads on roads insulating roads.
1968 oil discovered, 5yrs to design 3 to build cost $8bil, 1.4mil barrells per day.
Air pollution, Over hunting, Damaged ground, Tourism (litter, vegetation etc)
Antarctica/ Southern Ocean
5th largest continent. 99% covered by ice which 5km thick. 12million years of ice age.
Fluctuations in the food chain, 50 years + to return to original state.
Whaling- 300 employed, species running dangerously low, 19th Century 27,500. 1964 1,000-2,000. Since restrictions 5,000 left.
Sealing- Used for fur, 300,000 dead in 3 years.
Why go?- Glacial landscapes, cruise ships, camping etc.
Sustainability- Guidelines, no litter, code of conduct.
Impacts- Tern colonies suffer disturbances, foot prints remain.
Numbers- 6,700 in 1992. 45,000 in 2009. 1,000-5,000 researchers a year.
Antarctica/ Southern Ocean Continued...
Peaceful- no military/ nuclear activity.
Free access/ research rights.
100 visitors at a time.
Protocol for Environmental Protection (1991)
2/3 world population, 45 signatures.
Ban on mineral resource activity.