What was the Cold War
- USA vs USSR
- Capitalism vs Communism
- Avoiding direct conflict
- Rivalry in ways such as spying, arms race and propaganda
Causes of tension between East and West.
- Stalin is paranoid because he wasn't told about the nuclear bomb and that it took so long for England and the US to actually do anything in the world war.
- Stalin sees a power vacuum in Europe.
- Rivalry in other ways such as; Arms race and propaganda.
Yalta conference: Agreements
Between the big three; Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin
- Germany would be divided into 4 zones
- Agreed that they would punish the Nazi leaders
- Free elections in liberated countries.
- Eastern Europe is Russias sphere of influence.
Yalta conference: Disagreements
- Can't hold free elections in a sphere of influence.
-Stalin wants land from it -England went to war to protect Poland -Poland hates communists
Potsdam conference: Agreements
- New borders for Germany and Poland
- Trails held for high ranking Nazis - Nuremberg trials.
Potsdam conference: disagreements
- How far Germany should be weakened
- How much reparation payments should go to Russia from Germany
- Stalin has too much control over Eastern Europe
Stalin's tactics in controlling Eastern Europe
- Running coalition governments with an imbalance of power.
- Rigged elections
- Red army
Iron Curtain speech
- 1946 in USA, Fulton
- Made by Churchill
- Truman approves of the speech
- Says that eastern Europe is soviet dominated
- Says that the people behind the iron curtain are not free
- Stalin is furious and says that it's unfair
- The USA says they will give aid and military support to any country in Europe that needs it.
- Formed to stop the spread of communism - linked closely with the idea of Containment
- Stalin sees it as a threat to Russia
- Triggered by the Civil war in Greece
Marshall aid : Why
Marshall sees poverty in Europe and wants to help it for three reasons
Political - to stop the spread of communism.
Moral - to help out an ally.
Economical - to boost US trade.
Marshall aid : what was it and what were the react
$17 billion in aid to be sent to Europe.
Stalin didn't like it and referred to it as dollar imperialism
US congress was wary because it was such a large sum of money
- Run by 4 powers
- Split into 4 zones, France, USA, Britain and Russia
- Western zone got lots of Marshall aid which was used as propaganda.
- Full of spies.
- USA introduced new currency (Deutschmark) - angers USSR
- USSR tries to blockade west
- USA conducts berlin airlift - great propaganda.