- Created by: ethannnnnnnnn
- Created on: 31-01-18 18:29
Places that experience temperatures at or below 0 degrees for long time periods.
Types of Environments...
Avarage monthly temperatures of 0 degrees or below - snow and ice.
Totally or partially ocvered with Ice Caps.
Animals: Polar Bears - thick coat to retain heat, insulation layer of fat, black feet and nose absorb sun heat.
N. Hemisphere (Russia, N. Canada) - 1/5 of earths land
Permenantly frozen ground, Treesless - only shrubs and moss.
Animals: Arctic fox and hare, birds and insects in summer
WHERE is Svalbard?
N.E from United Kingdom.
Longitude: -15 degrees east
Maximum temperature: 7 degrees c
Minimum temperature: -16 degrees c
Avarage temperature: - 6.75 degrees c
Max precipitation: 24mm
Min precipitation: 7mm
Development in Svalbard...
well known for stunning landscapes
Negative tourist imapcts to a minimum in order to prevent damage to ecosystems and environments
2007 - 211 people working in tourism sector
2007 - Revenue of £30,000 or 317 million NOK
Activities: Hiking, Kayaking, dog-sled safari, glaciar caves.
Traffic strongly concentrated between march and August.
Overnight stays - quintupled from 1991 to 2008 - 93,000 overnight guests.
Cruise ships - main transport. All boats over 24 meters need to have a pilot incase they crash into fjord and spilling oil, endangering wildlife and ecosystems.
Development in Svalbard...
Coal Mining -
2007 - 484 people working in mining sector.
Revenue (2007) - £192,000,000 (2.008 billion NOK)
Most housing on the island rented to employees.
2011 - 20 year plan to develop off shore oil and gas recources.
patch of ocean claimed for fishing purposes so it does not get pollouted by boats, e.g cruises.
Challenges of developing in cold environments...
with temperatures as low as -16 degrees can damage machienery e.g wind turbine - frozen.
Transport - foul conditions on roads, icey, snow. Hard for commuters.
Housing - if employment rates increased, more housing would need to be built
damage to local ecosystems and habitats.
Global warming - can limit amount of work, air polloution and sound polloution need to be kept to a minimum as animals are protected. e.g ice melt destorys ecosysytems (polar bear)
snow melt, rising sea levels
Why should we protect these cold fragile environme
Many others are being damaged
Mining is key in cold environments lots of minerals - if they melt harder to mine.
Fishing - migrate to colder seas if the sea temp rises - no fish limiting profit and trade.
Balance between economic development and conservat
Nature reserves - protect animals, maintain correct temperature, reduce extinction chances.
Govournement - limit how many fossil fuels are burnt each day as these create air polloution and release carbon dioxide which warms planet as it is a greenhouse gas.
International agreements - reduce gloabl warming e.g public transport, solar panels, electric cars, bikes, recycling