Cold environments


Cold Environments...

Cold Environments...

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Cold environments

Places that experience temperatures at or below 0 degrees for long time periods.

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Types of Environments...



Avarage monthly temperatures of 0 degrees or below - snow and ice.

Totally or partially ocvered with Ice Caps.

Animals: Polar Bears - thick coat to retain heat, insulation layer of fat, black feet and nose absorb sun heat.


N. Hemisphere (Russia, N. Canada) - 1/5 of earths land 

Permenantly frozen ground, Treesless - only shrubs and moss.

Animals: Arctic fox and hare, birds and insects in summer

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WHERE is Svalbard?

N.E from United Kingdom.

Norweigan sea

In Europe

Longitude: -15 degrees east

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Svalbard weather

Maximum temperature: 7 degrees c

Minimum temperature: -16 degrees c

Avarage temperature: - 6.75 degrees c

Max precipitation: 24mm

Min precipitation: 7mm

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Development in Svalbard...

Tourism - 

well known for stunning landscapes

Negative tourist imapcts to a minimum in order to prevent damage to ecosystems and environments

2007 - 211 people working in tourism sector

2007 - Revenue of £30,000 or 317 million NOK

Activities: Hiking, Kayaking, dog-sled safari, glaciar caves.

Traffic strongly concentrated between march and August.

Overnight stays - quintupled from 1991 to 2008 - 93,000 overnight guests.

Cruise ships - main transport. All boats over 24 meters need to have a pilot incase they crash into fjord and spilling oil, endangering wildlife and ecosystems.

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Development in Svalbard...

Coal Mining - 

2007 - 484 people working in mining sector.

Revenue (2007) - £192,000,000 (2.008 billion NOK)

Most housing on the island rented to employees.

2011 - 20 year plan to develop off shore oil and gas recources.

Fishing - 

patch of ocean claimed for fishing purposes so it does not get pollouted by boats, e.g cruises.

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Challenges of developing in cold environments...

with temperatures as low as -16 degrees can damage machienery e.g wind turbine - frozen. 

Transport - foul conditions on roads, icey, snow. Hard for commuters.

Housing - if employment rates increased, more housing would need to be built

damage to local ecosystems and habitats.

Global warming - can limit amount of work, air polloution and sound polloution need to be kept to a minimum as animals are protected. e.g ice melt destorys ecosysytems (polar bear) 

snow melt, rising sea levels

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Why should we protect these cold fragile environme

Many others are being damaged 


endangering wildlife

Mining is key in cold environments lots of minerals - if they melt  harder to mine.

Fishing - migrate to colder seas if the sea temp rises - no fish limiting profit and trade. 

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Balance between economic development and conservat

Nature reserves - protect animals, maintain correct temperature, reduce extinction chances.

Govournement - limit how many fossil fuels are burnt each day as these create air polloution and release carbon dioxide which warms planet as it is a greenhouse gas. 

International agreements - reduce gloabl warming e.g public transport, solar panels, electric cars, bikes, recycling

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