COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - COMPONENTS OF WMM (1)

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - COMPONENTS OF WMM (1)

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - THE COMPONENTS OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL

WHAT DID BADDELY AND HITCH (1974) ARGUE ABOUT THE MULTI STORE MODEL?

WHAT ARE THE THREE MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - COMPONENTS OF WMM

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - COMPONENTS OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL

BADDLEY AND HITCH ARGUED THAT THE PICTURE OF STM PROVIDED BY THE MULTI STORE MODEL WAS FAR TO SIMPLE. ACCORDING TO THE MULTI STORE MODEL THE STM HOLDS LIMITED AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME WITH LITTLE PROCESSING. IT IS A UNITARY SYSTEM - A SINGLE SYSTEM WITHOUT ANY SUBSYSTEMS

HOWEVER BADDLEY AND HITCH (1974) DISAGREED AND CAME UP WITH THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL TO REPLACE ATKINSON AND SHIFFRINS STM. THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL COMPRISES OF THREE MAIN SYSTEMS:

  • THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE: HAS OVERALL CONTROL / ALLOCATES DATA TO THE SUB SYSTEMS VSS AND PL / DEALS WITH COGNITIVE TASKS E.G. PROBLEM SOLVING
  • THE PHONOLOGICAL LOOP: LIMITED CAPACITY / TEMPORARY STORAGE SYSTEM FOR HOLDING VERBAL INFORMATION IN SPEECH BASED FORM
  • THE VISUO SPATIAL SKETCHPAD: LIMITED CAPACITY / TEMPOARY MEMORY SYSTEM FOR HOLDING VISUAL AND/OR SPATIAL INFORMATION 
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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - EVIDENCE FOR PL (3)

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - EVIDENCE FOR PHONONLOGICAL LOOP

BADDELEY, THOMOSON AND BUCHANAN (1975)

WHAT WAS THE STUDY?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

WHAT DID THEY CONCLUDE?

WHAT WERE THE METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - EVIDENCE FOR PL

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - EVIDENCE FOR THE PHONOLOGICAL LOOP

BADDELEY, THOMSON AND BUCHANAN (1975) GAVE VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF WORD LISTS FOR VERY BRIEF EXPOSURES. ASKED PARTICIPANTS TO WRITE DOWN IN SERIAL ORDER. 2 CONDITIONS:

  • 1ST CONDITION - LIST CONSISTED OF FIVE FAMILIAR ONE SYLLABLE ENGLISH WORDS (HARM, WIT, TWICE)
  • 2ND CONDITION - FIVE WORDS WERE POLYSYLLABIC WORDS (UNIVERSITY, ASSOCIATION, ORGANISATION)

AVERAGE CORRECT REALL OVER SERIAL TRIALS SHOWED MARK SUPERIORITY FOR SHORT WORDS - CALLED THIS 'WORDS LENGTH EFFECT'

CONLUDED CAPACITY OF LOOP IS DETERMINED BY THE LENGTH OF TIME IT TAKES TO SAY WORDS (ESTIMATED 1.5 SECS)

METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES - LABORATORY EXPERIMENT / WELL CONTROLLED / LONGER WORDS ARE SIMPLY LESS FAMILIAR AND ARE THERFORE HARDER TO RECALL

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - EVIDENCE FOR VSS (4)

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - EVIDENCE FOR VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD

A VISUAL PROCESSING TASK AND A VERBAL PROCESSING TASK CAN BE PERFORMED AT THE SAME TIME. IT IS MORE DIFFICULT TO PERFORM TO VISUAL TASKS AT THE SAME TIME BECAUSE THEY INTERFERE WITH EACH OTHER AND PERFORMANCE IS REDUCED. THE SAME APPLIES TO PERFORMING TO VERBAL TASKS AT THE SAME TIME.

BADDELEY, GRANT, WIGHT AND THOMSON (1973

WHAT IS THE STUDY?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

WHAT WERE THE METHODOLOGIAL ISSUES?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - EVIDENCE FOR VSS

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - EVIDENCE FOR VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD

BADDELEY AT AL (1973) GAVE PARTICIPANTS A SIMPLE TRACKING TASK (FOLLOWING A SPT OF LIGHT WITH A POINTER AS IT MOVED AROUND A CIRCULAR PATH) WHILE CARRYING OUT SIMUALTANEOUS VISUAL IMAGERY TASK (IMAGINE LOOKING AT ANGULAR BLOCK CAPITAL H,T,F,E)

PARTICIPANTS ASKED TO HOLD IMAGE IN HEAD AND STARTING AT BOTTOM LEFT HAND CORNER, TO RESPND TO EACH ANGLE AS IF 'YES' IT INCLUDED BOTTOM/TOP LINE OF THE LETTER, 'NO' IF IT DID NOT.

FOUND PARTICIPANTS HAD ENORMOUS DIFFICULTY IN TRACKING THE SPOT OF LIGHT AND ACCURATELY CLASSIFYING THE CORNERS. THIS SEEMS TO BE BECAUSE THE TWO TASKS WERE COMPETING FOR THE SAME LIMITED RESOURCES OF THE VSS.

THIS CONCLUSION WAS SUPPORTED BY THE FINDING THAT PARTICIPANTS COULD SUCCESSFULLY CARRY OUT THE TRACKING TASK AT THE SAME TIME AS PERFORMING A VERBAL TASK

METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES: HIGHLT CONTROLLED LABORATORY EXPERIEMENT / ARTIFIICAL / USED REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN TO ELIMINATE EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - STRENGTHS OF WMM (5)

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - STRENGTHS OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL

NAME 4 STRENGTHS OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - STRENGTH OF WMM

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - STRENGTHS OF WORKING MEMORY MODEL

  • EXPLAINS STM IN MUCH MORE DETAIL
  • 
  • ATTEMPTS TO EXPLAIN HOW MEMORY FUNCTIONS
  • IT CAN ACCOUNT FOR INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN MEMORY PROCESSING
  • CAN BE APPLIED TO VARIOUS REAL LIFE SETTINGS
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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - WEAKNESSES OF WMM (6)

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - WEAKNESSES OF WORKING MEMORY MODEL

 NAME THREE WEAKNESSES OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - WEAKNESSES OF WMM

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - WEAKNESSES OF WORKING MEMORY MODEL

  • DOES NOT OFFER A COMPLETE UNDERSTANDING OF HOW MEMORY WORKS
  • 
  • THE ROLE OF THE CENTERAL EXECUTIVE IS UNCLEAR
  • FAILS TO ACCOUNT FOR MUSICAL MEMORY
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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - COMPONENTS OF WMM (2)

WORKING MEMORY MODEL - COMPONENTS OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL

BADDELEY AND LOGIE (1999) REFINED THE ASPECTS OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL

WHAT DOES THE PHONOLOGICAL LOOP NOW CONSIST OF?

WHAT DOES THE VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD NOW CONSIST OF?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - COMPONENTS OF WMM

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - COMPONENTS OF WORKING MEMORY MODEL

  • THE PHONOLOGICAL LOOP NOW CONSISTS OF A SYSTEM CALLED THE PHONOLOGICAL STORE, LINKED TO THE ACTIVE REHERSAL REHERSAL SYSTEM (ARTICULATORY LOOP)
  • 
  • THE VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD COSISTS OF A PASSIVE VISUAL STORE CALLED VISUAL CACHE, WHICH IS LINKED TO AN ACTIVE INNER SCRIBE
  • 
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