COGNITIVE INTERVIEWS:used by police for interviewing witnesses,interview strategies based on what psychologists have found about the memory.
our brain is made up of a network of associations , which are best accessed using multiple retrieval techniques.
Key Study -Fisher and Gieselman,1992
REPORT EVERYTHING -EVERY SINGLE DETAIL OF EVENT-AIM:INCREASES CONSISTENCY BETWEEN ACTUAL EVENT AND RECALL OF EVENT.
MENTAL REINSTATEMENT OF ORIGINAL CONTEXT- MENTALLY RECREATE THE ENVIROMENT OF ORIGINAL INCIDENT-AGAIN INCREASES CONSISTENCYBETWEEN ACTUAL EVEN AND RECALL OF EVENT,THUS INCREASING RECALL.
CHANGING THE ORDER-REVERSING THE ORDER IN WHICH EVENTS OCCURED-AIM:TO VARY THE ROUTE THROUGH MEMORY IN ORDER TO INCREASE RECALL.
CHANGING PERSPECTIVE-RECALL THE INCIDENT FROM MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES-AIM:TO VARY ROUTE THROUGH MEMORY IN ORDER TO INCREASE RECALL.
Stein and Memon-interviewed female cleaning staff in Brazil and found increased recall , especially for useful details.
Kohnkenetal -conducted a meta-analysis of 53 studies and found a 34% increase when using COGNITIVE INTERVIEW compared with STANDARD INTERVIEW.
Milne and Bull- interviewed college students and children -found that using steps 1&2 gave better recall than just using 1. They also found that using just 1 component was no better than an instruction to 'try again'.
Kebbel and Wagstaff- time consuming -police prefer to use strategies that limit amount of information collected.
Hard to evaluate-there are many different versions of Cognitive Interview used by different police forces, some only use two of the steps.