Cognitive Development

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  • Created by: SBDL
  • Created on: 05-05-14 11:47

Piaget and Vygtosky

Piaget and Vygotsky:

AO1:

·         P - maturation stages; S/Po/Co/Fo

·         V - ZPD / MKO

AO2:

·         Culture: Gredler 93 Papua New Guinea 29 - limited CD - vary C+NC - Nurture>Nature

·         Nature Vs. Nurture - Bi maturation - P innate - special kids? V social interaction

·         Apply? P - readiness key stage / Vygotsky - mainstream / = both :) active not sponge

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Application of Piaget and Vygotsky:

Application of Piaget and Vygotsky:

AO1:

·         P - Plowden Committee 69's / Slavin 05 never force acceleration 

·         V - MKO Barnier 89 6/7>7/8 

AO2:

·         Culture: Stigler + Perry 90 Asian/American maths - relevance? post-hoc

·         Contrasting compared to traditional: Bennet 76 traditional better? Cohen 83 peer tutoring / Slavin 91 dif to distinguish / unethical to conduct

·         Reductionist: both advantageous - eclectic - sponge - pave bridge soc+cog

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Kohlberg's Morality:

Kohlberg's Morality:

AO1:

·         Kohlberg 66 - invariant / moral maturity bio age

·         Stages - Pre-con/Post-con - 20yrs 72 CS - 10-15% >20 Post-Con / Walker 87 40b40g - >15 S3, 3% > S5 

AO2:

·         Thinking not behaviour: Kohlberg 75 cheating - 70%/15% post-con / Burton 76 'likelihood of punishment' - reasoning not reflect - mundane realism - generalise = ecological validity

·         Gender bias: Boys - Gilligan 82 - morality of care/justice - examples of abortion - Eisenberg 83 ignores emotions // Jorgenson 06 core concepts remain :) 

·         Society: research moral muscle - neuroscience - feed glucose - improve stages via cluster schools - develop morality ECLETIC - Learn and innate 

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Theory of Mind:

Theory of Mind:

AO1:

·         Sense of self 0 5m Legerstee 98 / 8m subjective / Amsterdam Rouge test 72 9M red paint / 15m rub off 2 y me / Damon and Hart 98 4y 'I swim' 10 'I happy' 

·         TOM - skills / false belief task

AO2:

·         Nurture - 86% / 20% mindblindness / Mahler 73 'lacks separateness' / Freud 'narcissist baby no self-awareness

·         Nature - Animal Gallop 70 chimpanzee / Plotnik 06 elephant - bio element

·         Not universal: Van den Heuvel 92 - W/C D+H diff response / Pipp 92 faster TOM in secure family / Perner 94 individ diff / Sabbagh + Callan 98 - development western 

·         Apply: Triangulation - diff measure / Cambridge transporters - brain plasticity - bio element

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Perspective Taking of Others:

AO1:

·         Understand = skills - Piaget / Meltzoff 97 <72 imitate basic mirroring / Carpenter 01 <1yr follow faze - born with capacity to understand

·         P-T ability moral reasoning - Piaget's 3 mountain / B-C's Sally Anne / Selmen 76 Holy 5 stages

AO2:

·         Invariant: bio maturation - Manly 03 teenagers mistreatment - PT 10 years old - pair therapy application 

·         Society: develop role-taking in schools / Selman 02 importance social - Schagger 02 - SST in prisons empathy ^ 

·         Retrospective: digital world - dynamics changed - Impact of Embodied PT on immersive Virtual Env - Stanford 06 short virtual inter change neg stereotypes - future work - inequality fuelled by lack of PT 

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Mirror Neurons:

Mirror Neurons:

AO1:

·         MN Rizzolattio 96 macaque monkeys / Binkofski 00 fmri Broca speech / Eisenbury 00 limbic empathy / Keysrs - empathy women

·         Ramachandran 00 - MNs mental states - Bandura imitate Zheintte 86 - damaged frontal cortex = compulsive imitate 

AO2:

·         Non-human study: dif generalise - Gopnik 09 human complex - animals no TOM

·         Autism: Dapretto 06 reductionist - deficit = cause of neural dysfunction :(

·         Apply: Brain plasticity - autism - Slack  transporters BC - Mitchell 08 social skills - Virtual 

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