Cognitive approach

Does the brain have separate storage systems (working memory model) or is it all linked (multi-store model)? How can animal research be applied?

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Milner et al (1957) - case study of HM

HM had severe and frequent epilepsy - in hippocampus

1953, doctors surgically removed part of brain around this area

Operation reduced epilepsy, suffered memory loss

Form STM's but unable to form new LTM's. E.g read something multiply without realising read it before.

Could talk and show previous skills (procedural memory)

Through tests - episodic memory (past events) and semantic memory (knowledge) were more affected.

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Gardner and Gardner (1969) - teaching ASL to a chi

Method: Washoe (chimp) raised like human and taught American Sign Language

Results: After 22 months, Washoe had learnt at least 34 signs

Conclusion: Same language patterns as children. Similar learning rates. Did not learn grammar.

Evaluation: Ethics - Washoe taken from wild and deprived of chimp companionship.

                  External Validity - cannot accurately generalise chimps to humans

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