Milner et al (1957) - case study of HM
HM had severe and frequent epilepsy - in hippocampus
1953, doctors surgically removed part of brain around this area
Operation reduced epilepsy, suffered memory loss
Form STM's but unable to form new LTM's. E.g read something multiply without realising read it before.
Could talk and show previous skills (procedural memory)
Through tests - episodic memory (past events) and semantic memory (knowledge) were more affected.
Gardner and Gardner (1969) - teaching ASL to a chi
Method: Washoe (chimp) raised like human and taught American Sign Language
Results: After 22 months, Washoe had learnt at least 34 signs
Conclusion: Same language patterns as children. Similar learning rates. Did not learn grammar.
Evaluation: Ethics - Washoe taken from wild and deprived of chimp companionship.
External Validity - cannot accurately generalise chimps to humans