cognitive approach

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cognitive approach

2 key assumptions:                                                                                                                                                        1. infomation processing model: how we recieve, process and respond to infomation. input --> process --> output                                                                                                                                                                                                         2. computer analogy- human mind is compared to a computer. input (keyboard)--> process (hard drive) --> output (email). 

participant designs:                                                                                                                                                    * independant measure- when only one experimental condition is tested on a group of ppts.                                                      * repeated measure- same ppts are used in all experimental conditions                                                                                   * matched pairs- ppts are matched on a quality or characteristic e.g gender/age 

Experiment methods:                                                                                                                                                   * lab experiment- conducted in a tightly controlled environment; IV is directly manupilated and effect of the change is measured by the DV.                                              + extraneous variable can be controlled                                  - highly artifical- lacks ecological validity                                -demand characterisitics 

* field experiment carried out in a natural environment    + behaviour is realistic- no demand characterisitics so can be generalised to real life situations                                            - little control- extraneous variables                                        - ethical problems- ppts are unaware of experiment- no consent given, no right to withdraw                                                                    * natural experiment- conducted in a natural environment

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theories of memory

Theories of Memory                                                                                                                                                     1. MULTI STORE MODEL- Atkkinson and Shiffrin (1968)                                                                                

 sensory memory infomation enters via the sensese                                                                                                   if infomation is paid attention to it enters the short term memory                                                                          short term memory capacity- 5-9 items, duration- 20-30 seconds                                                                                    rehersal loop- if info is rehersed it enters the long term memory, if not it is forgotten                                    long term memory capacity- unlimited, duration- lifetime 

+ brown (1958) & peterson and peterson (1959) found that blocking rehersal resulted in poorer recall (evidence to support) 

+ study of amnesiacs and korsakoff patients- prove some memories stores can remain intact while others can be damaged 

- too rigid and simplistic- overly simplistic view on something very comples 

- other theories of memory- level of processing: states that we recall infomation depending on what level we have processed the infomation 

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theories of memory 2

Theory of Memory                                                                                                                                                 theory of memory= levels of processing: Craik and Lockhart                                                                                 LOP model distinguishes betweern maintenance rehersal- retains items for the time being; and elaborative rehersal- which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories. 

3 levels of processing:                                                                                                                                                           1. structural- based on appenrance; weak memory trace; shallowest LOP                                                                  2. phonetic- based on sound; moderate memory trace                                                                                              3. semantic- based on meaning; deapest LOP; strong memory trace 

+ has practical application- e.g for students revising for an exam- if using semantic learning, there will be better recall 

+ evidance to support: craik and tulving found that ppts who processed words semantically - recalled more words than structural/phonetic processing.              - ^ was a lab experiment, so lacks eco validity                                     - lacks experimental validity- learning a list of words is not                                                                                                                                                              - other theories- MSM- focuses on rehersal rather than how info is processed. 

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theories of forgetting

    Cue Dependant forgetting TULVING-1974                                                                                                          * explains failure to remember                                                                                                                                   * memory cannot be accessed until a cue is used 

Two types of cues:                                                                                                                                                    1. context dependant                                  2. state dependant                                                                                * place/situation                                      * state/condition/emotion of person                                                           e.g trying to remeber a crime                   e.g. learning and recalling in the same mood.                                   when not at the scene                                       

+ application to real life- e.g witnessing and remember details of a crime 

+ support from studies- Godden and Baddley (1975) diving experiment- found ppts recalled more word when in the same environment as they where when the words were learnt 

- other theories- e.g interferance 

- lacks eco and exp validity- research was in labs 

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theories of forgetting 2

2nd theory of forgetting: Interferance Theory 

* can explain forgetting in bothe STM And LTM                                                                                                         STM= interferance in STM prevents memories being laid down in LTM so will be forgotten                                     LTM= 2 types: proactive + retroactive                                                                                                                         PROACTIVE= old info interfering with new (e.g cant learn new phone number)                                                       RETROACTIVE= new info interfering with old (e.g can learn new number and completely forget old)                     

+ evidance to support- counting backwards resulted in poorer recall (peterson and peterson- 1959) 

+ application to real life- can explain why we forget infomation 

- research was experimental- lacks eco validity and exp validity- tasks where unrealistic 

- other theories explain forgetting- cue dependant forgetting: states we forget info becuase cues are not present 

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