Cognitive Psychology Theories

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  • Created by: tomtom11
  • Created on: 14-05-16 14:27

Describe MSM

  • There are three stores, the sensory store, the STM, and the LTM.
  • The Sensory Store: Can store for up to two seconds, and can maintain up to two items. 
  • STM: Memories are acoustic. 7+or-2 items are recorded. Up to 30 seconds-worth can be recorded. 
  • LTM: Memories are mainly semantic, but could also be acoustic. It can hold a certain number of items from minutes to years. Memories are often cue dependent. 
  • Transferral: To transfer from the sensory store to the STM, attention is mainly needed. In order to maintain the memory in the STM, simple maintenance rehearsal is needed. In order to transfer a memory to the LTM, more in-depth rehearsal is needed. In order to remember the memory, it's retrived back into the STM. 
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Describe WMM

  • Three stores: The Central Executive (CE), Phonological Loop (PL), and Visuo-spatial Sketchpad (VSSP)
  • CE is responsible for the control and coordination of mental operations including reasoning, comprehension, learning and memory. It is modality free (sound, sight, touch). However, it has a limited capacity. It controls our attention, allowing us to switch from one thing to another.
  • PL deals with verbal material. 
    Two sub-stores, Phonological store (inner ear): stores speech-based sounds for a few seconds.
    Articulatory rehearsal system (inner voice): used to rehearse verbal information in our heads rather than out loud. 
  • VSSP (inner eye) stores and processes visual and spatial information. 
  • They act indepedantly- visual info shouldn't interfere with processing verbal information. 
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Episodic and Semantic Memory

  • Episodic memory is a record of the episodes/experiences in our lives, and are time-referenced. Thus, retrieval of these memories are dependent on recalling the context of the situation. Due to context being referenced in recall of these memories, they are likely to be transformed. 
  • Semantic memory is our factual info/general knowledge store, and, despite not being time referenced, can be in temporal form. Retreival of a semantic memory is not dependent on context, and is not likely to change. 
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Describe Reconstructive Memory

  • Suggests it's an imaginative reconstruction of past events, and we don't remember accurately; instead, we are influenced by our prior knowledge. 
  • 'Schemas' = packets of information we have about the world and they affect how we interpret events. 
  • When we retrieve stored memories, we use previous experiences to interpret the info, and then it's reconstructed. 
  • If there are any gaps in our memory, we may use a schema to organise that information. 
  • Thus, schemas may lead us to distort unfamiliar information so that it fits in with our existing knowledge. 
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