Cognitive development

  • Created by: Kiramai12
  • Created on: 07-12-15 18:38

Cognitive development

Age related changes. How children think and behave differently as they got older

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Invariant stages

The same stages in a fixed order, that the development of a child's ability to think goes through

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Universal stages

The pattern or orderr of development of the development of thinking that is the same for all children everywhere 

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Core theory: Piaget's Theory

Development follows a fixed (invariant) order

The behaviour in question progresses and gets better by the stage 

The order of stages is true for everyone (universal)

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The sensori-motor stage - from birth to 2 years ol

Body schemas: The infant recognises that i exists physically (e.g. recognises it's self in a photo)

Motor co-ordination:The infant learns to use different body parts and they learn to co-ordiate their body parts (e.g. moving on their hands and knees to crawl)

Object permanence: The infant knows something exists even if they cannot see it. Thhis is relevant to both objects and people

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The pre-operational stage - from about 2 to 7 year

Children learn to use symbols such as mental images and words

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The concrete operational stage - from 7 to 11 year

At this stage children overcome;



And they can now think backwards

Linguistic humour: Children understand word games and double meanings

Seriation:to be able to rank or put things in order (e.g. smallest to largest, heaviest to lightest)

Conservation: When children know the properties of objects stay the same despite seeming to change. For example, the two rows of counters experiment and the two glasses experiment

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The formal operational stage - from 11 years and o

Children form the abliilty to solve sophisticated and abstract problems. Also Piaget believed children would start to think hypothetically this involves problem solving scientifically and logically. This allows children to "see the big picture".

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Criticisms of Piaget's theory 1

The cognitive stages are no as rigid as Piaget said - Some stages and overcoming certain characteristics depends on the sitation the child is in.

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Criticisms of Piaget's theory 2

Some people do not go through all of the stages of cognitive development.

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Criticisms of Piaget's theory 3

Piaget ignore the effect of nuture such as parents and teachers. Piaget also ignored the role of emotions.

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Criticisms of Piaget's theory 4

Piaget ignored differrent kinds of thinking. He ignorred thinking such as creativity in the arts.

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Criticisms of Piaget's theory 5

Different trypes of thinking develop differently for children everywhere. For example,Aboriginal children develop concrete operational thinking faster than European children as it is key for for physical survival.

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Criticisms of Piaget's theory 6

Piaget only explains what thinking a child can and cannot do. He doesn't explain how the changes in thinking occur.

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An Alternative Theory: Vygotsky

Zone of proximal development: The gap between where a child is in their learning and where they can potentially get to with the help and support of others.

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Core study: Piaget and conservation of number

According to Piaget children from the age of 2 - 7 years old (in the pre-operational stage) lack the ability to conserve. Children of this stage are influenced by the way things look. For example, if something is more spread out it seems bigger.

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Core study: Piaget and conservation of number: Pro

Piaget used a cross-sectional of chilren of ifferent ages to test them to on their ability to conserve. The children were shown two identical rows of counters. They were asked which had more counters in. The researcher then changed the layout of one of the rows of counters. They stretched out one row without adding or takin away any counters. The chilren were asked again which row had more counters in.

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Core study: Piaget and conservation of number: lim

Piaget was criticised for the way he asked questions towards the children. Repeating the question can make children second guess themselves. The second time the question is asked the children may think that the first time they answere, the answer was wrong. So they say the opposite answer to before.

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Core study: Piaget and conservation of number: lim

Piaget was criticised for the nature of the task. The test had been made child-friendly, and it produced results which contradicted Piaget.

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Core study: Piaget and conservation of number: lim

There was a small sample size. It would not be representative for children universally.

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Applications of research: Educating Children

Piaget and Vygotsky had two different ideas and and explanations on thinking and schooling

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Applications of research: Educating Children: Piag

The concept of readiness

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