Beck's Cognitive Theory
- Cognitive Triad
- Negative thoughts about the self - believe that they are worthless and will therefore never attain happiness.
- Negative thoughts about the world - small objects are misinterpreted as impassable barriers.
- Negative thoughts about the future - believe that negative things that are happening now will continue into future because of personal defects.
- Errors of Logic
- Overgeneralization - refers to drawing global conclusion about worth on the basis of a single fact.
- Personalization - refers to incorrectly taking responsibility for bad events in the world.
- Arbitrary inference - drawing a conclusion that has little or no evidence to support.
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Ellis' ABC Model
- ABC model to demosntrate how beliefs determine the way human beings feel and behave.
- A - refers to whatever started things of. e.g thinking about something which has happened.
- B - this triggers off thoughts.
- C - turns into a reaction = feelings and behvaiour
- Ways of thinking that will make you feel bad in dysfunctional ways:
- People rating - labelling or rating your total self (worthless/useless)
- Demanding - using 'should' or 'I need to be loved'
- Rational thinking is a realistic thinking. It concerned with facts, the real world rather than subjective opinion or wishful thinking.
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Cognitive Approach - Evaluation
- Has good supporting evidence
- Clark and Beck reviewed research on this topic and concludd tha there was solid support for all these cognitive vulnerability factos
- These conditions can be seen before depression develops, suggesting that BECK may be right about cognition causing, at least in some cases.
- Ellis' theory is reductionist.
- It blames the patients for having irrational thoughs that result in depression.
- It excludes the posibility that there may be factors in the patients's life beyond thir control that acuse anxiety and depression.
- The theory acknowledges other aspects such as genes, development and early experiences.
- It can lead to certain thinking patterns which lead to depression.
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Cognitive Approach - Treatment
- Beck's Cognitive Therapy
- It is to identify automatic thoughts about the world, self and the future.
- Cognitive therapy aims to help patients test the reality of their negative beliefs.
- They might be set h/w's such as recording events they enjoyed or when people were nice to them.
- In future if patients say no one was nice - therapist can then produce this evidence and use it to prove the patient's statements are incorrect.
- Ellis' REBT
- The technique to identify and challenge irrational thoughts.
- Challenging may involve a vigorous argument - intended effect is to change irrational belief and so break the link between negative life events and depression.
- Therapist encourage patients to be more active and engage activities.
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Cognitive Approach Treatment - Evaluation
- It is effective
- March et al compared effects of CBT antidepressant and combination of 2 in 327 adolescents with main diagnosis of depression.
- 86% of the CBT+antidepressant group significantly improved.
- CBT emerged as jsut as effective as medication and helpful alongside medication. (NHS - first choice of treatment)
- CBT may not work for severe cases.
- Some cases patients cannot motivate themselves to engage with hard cognitive work of CBT.
- Though it is possible to work around by using medication - CBT cannot be used as the sole treatment for all cases of depression.
- CBT successful with unipolar depression as well as eating disorders.
- CBT are centered on irrational thoughts that cause inappropriate behaviours - improve validity as form of treatment.
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