Cognitive Approach to Depression + Treatment

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  • Created by: Darblu07
  • Created on: 18-05-16 12:13

Beck's Cognitive Theory

  • Cognitive Triad
  • Negative thoughts about the self - believe that they are worthless and will therefore never attain happiness. 
  • Negative thoughts about the world - small objects are misinterpreted as impassable barriers. 
  • Negative thoughts about the future - believe that negative things that are happening now will continue into future because of personal defects. 
  • Errors of Logic
  • Overgeneralization - refers to drawing global conclusion about worth on the basis of a single fact.
  • Personalization - refers to incorrectly taking responsibility for bad events in the world.
  • Arbitrary inference - drawing a conclusion that has little or no evidence to support. 
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Ellis' ABC Model

  • ABC model to demosntrate how beliefs determine the way human beings feel and behave. 
  • A - refers to whatever started things of. e.g thinking about something which has happened. 
  • B - this triggers off thoughts.
  • C - turns into a reaction = feelings and behvaiour
  • Ways of thinking that will make you feel bad in dysfunctional ways:
  • People rating - labelling or rating your total self (worthless/useless)
  • Demanding - using 'should' or 'I need to be loved'
  • Rational thinking is a realistic thinking. It concerned with facts, the real world rather than subjective opinion or wishful thinking.
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Cognitive Approach - Evaluation

  • Has good supporting evidence
  • Clark and Beck reviewed research on this topic and concludd tha there was solid support for all these cognitive vulnerability factos 
  • These conditions can be seen before depression develops, suggesting that BECK may be right about cognition causing, at least in some cases. 
  • Ellis' theory is reductionist.
  • It blames the patients for having irrational thoughs that result in depression.
  • It excludes the posibility that there may be factors in the patients's life beyond thir control that acuse anxiety and depression. 
  • The theory acknowledges other aspects such as genes, development and early experiences. 
  • It can lead to certain thinking patterns which lead to depression. 
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Cognitive Approach - Treatment

  • Beck's Cognitive Therapy
  • It is to identify automatic thoughts about the world, self and the future. 
  • Cognitive therapy aims to help patients test the reality of their negative beliefs. 
  • They might be set h/w's such as recording events they enjoyed or when people were nice to them. 
  • In future if patients say no one was nice - therapist can then produce this evidence and use it to prove the patient's statements are incorrect.
  • Ellis' REBT
  • The technique to identify and challenge irrational thoughts.
  • Challenging may involve a vigorous argument - intended effect is to change irrational belief and so break the link between negative life events and depression. 
  • Therapist encourage patients to be more active and engage activities.
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Cognitive Approach Treatment - Evaluation

  • It is effective
  • March et al compared effects of CBT antidepressant and combination of 2 in 327 adolescents with main diagnosis of depression. 
  • 86%  of the CBT+antidepressant group significantly improved. 
  • CBT emerged as jsut as effective as medication and helpful alongside medication. (NHS - first choice of treatment)
  • CBT may not work for severe cases.
  • Some cases patients cannot motivate themselves to engage with hard cognitive work of CBT.
  • Though it is possible to work around by using medication - CBT cannot be used as the sole treatment for all cases of depression. 
  • CBT successful with unipolar depression as well as eating disorders. 
  • CBT are centered on irrational thoughts that cause inappropriate behaviours - improve validity as form of treatment.
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