Data is often coded, either when it is collected or when it is entered into an ICT system.
Coding is when data is shortened so it takes up less storage space and is quicker to enter.
E.g. storing M or F for gender instead of male or female
Pros/cons of coding data
It is faster to enter - faster to type F than female
Reduces amount of data that needs to be stored - reduces storage required to save data
Easier to validate - as long as the data is within a list of allowed codes, it is valid
More secure - sometimes makes data more difficult to decipher
But everyone working with the data needs to know what the codes mean, so they'll need to be trained before working with coded data.
Encoding is when data is converted to binary form so that it can be processed by a computer.
Images: JPG, GIF, PNG Sound: MP3, Midi
JPG: Small file size, high detail, good quality, compatible with most software
Doesn't support transparency
PNG: Uses lossless compression, alpha channel transparency
Not suitable for large photos with details due to large generated file size
256 colours, transparency, lossless compression, suitable for small animations
Oldest format - introduced in 1989, usually quite a large file size