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Lancashire Coastal Plain

Southern edge of the Lake District near the Pennine hills. It is very flat and just above sea level.

  • Geology such as sand and clay are good for glass and brick making. Coal is used in industry and ironore for heating.
  • Fertile soils for farming anf the beach is used for recreational activities.
  • Sand dunes are a golf course.
  • Wildlife attracts tourists and scientists. 
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Coastalisation Australia, Spain and Florida


90% live in urban areas, 60% in the largest five cities on the coast. The ports bring employment, trade and business. Rainfall is higher so farming is there too.
There is a movement of people from small coastal town to the large cities. New immigrants often settle on the coastline. 


Population along the coastline increases 1.2% per year, caused by inward migration.
New migrants are usually families or retiring couples from the UK. In 2005 22% of people on the coast were over 65.


75% of people live on the coast, the property value is $1.9trillion. The Everglades have shrunk by 80% and 9% of Florida is 2m above sea level. Families and older people move there for the climate and way of life. Also the employment opportunities. 

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The Jurassic Coast

2001 UNESCO made it the UKs first World Heritage Site. The coast spans several geological periods which attracts tourists and scientists.
Spectacular landforms are formed by the varying geology.

Lulworth Cove - marine recreation such as kayaking

Kimmerisge Bay - are less resistant so fossils can be found there

Durdle Door - remaining band of limestone formimg a coastal arch, caravan park 

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Tourism in Dorset

Tourism is Dorsets biggest emploeyer, 30% of the population work in tourism.To protect then cliffs the Limpet Protection Zone provides visitor education.

Studland Bay
Owned by the National Trust, one of the UKs best sand dune area. 1.5 million people visit each year. Summer bank holiday brings 35,000 people on one day. Cars cause congestion and people trample the dunes and produce litter.

Boscombe surf reef
Sand textile bags on the sea floor to make the waves bigger and break out at sea. This will double surfing days. The council expect to earm £10mn a year and create 60 full time jobs.

World Heritage status increases tourism.

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Coastal Ecosystems

Sand Dunes
Constructive waves encourage sand acccumulation. Prevailing winds blow sand onshore. Obstacles needed to trap the sand in place.

Salt Marshes
Intertidal area between land and salty or brackish water. One of the most biologically productive habitats. Common on estauries. Marsh plants reduce wave energy.
Threats: people draining them for development, euthrophication, pollution, shipping. 

Coral Reefs
Development and tourism destroys them by litter, pollution and overfishing. As reef quality declines fish don't feed and rare species may die. Also local fishermen will suffer.

They can grow in lack of oxygen, anoxid, high salinty and innundation. They provide a natural sea defence from storms, also they catch the silt in their roots so water quality is better. IUCN compared death tols villages with mangroves nad pther vegetation and with mangroves 2 people died but 6000 died without.

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Blackpool, Benidorm and Dungeness

Was popular seaside resort but declined after WWII.

Population of 67,000 in the summer over 500,000. Vibrant nightlife attracts younger people. Popular for families going on package holidays.

38km stretch of coastline in Kent and East Sussex with shingle beaches. 2 nulcear power stations. Important ecological site.

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Inward migration is increasing the population. The climate, environmental quality and accessibility are pull factors. Typical sea-side resort with a pier.

The service sector has boomed as international banks and IT centres have based themselves there.

There are many retired people and many downsize to smaller properties. There is a vibrant nightlife around the univeristy.

The Green Belt is causing more development in a smaller space, coastal sqeeze. Aims to use brownfield sites.

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Dibden Bay, Southampton

Fawley oil refinery
Opened in 1951, biggest in UK, run by ESSO. It employs 3000 people and handles 2000 ships. Expansion has damaged the SSSI salt marsh. Liquid waste changes the ecosystems. There are occasional oil spills like in 1989 when 20 tonnes were spilt.

Other industries
Clams and oysters are harvested from this area. Euthropication is caused by farms and litter pollutes the water. 

Dibden Bay Proposal
Associated British Ports (ABP) announced plans in 2001 for a new port. This will increase the number of ships entering, provide 3000 more jobs and cost £700million. The estaury would be dredged and a new road would be built.

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Dibden Bay impacts


  • Possible debt
  • Provides temporary and full-time jobs
  • Connects to Europe increasing trade and income


  • Construction causes disruption 
  • Increased traffic
  • People lose their sea views


  • Species would have to move habitats
  • Increased pollution
  • Dredging
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North Norfolk

  • A new proposed SMP for NE Norfolk has caused controversy amongst coastal communities. The main focus of the new plan is that of managed retreat of the present coastline. Only the most important settlements will be protects, many smaller settlements will receive no extra help.
  • The coastline consists of cliffs of unconsolidated glacial sands and clays and lower lying areas of drained marshland. The present coastline is the latest position since sea levels rose by hundreds of metres after the cold glacial stage ended around 10,000 years ago and the level of the North Sea rose. The glacial deposits left behind across the floor of the North Sea have been steadily eroding away ever since.
  • The cliffs erode through two processes:
    -Direct undercutting of the cliff face and subsequent collapse by wave attack, as at the Happisburgh
    -And large scale rotational slumping caused by groundwater saturating the cliffs and forming a glide plane along which the cliff fails, as at Overstrand.
  • Once the cliff has failed and fallen onto the beach the sea is able to remove the slumped material through long shore drift. Until the material is removed it helps support the cliff behind. Once removed the cliff is able to slump onto the beach again.
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North Norfolk cont.

  • The lower lying marshland or flatlands are fronted by ridges or sand dune systems. Behind Sea Palling is the most significant section of low laying land which extends into the Broads National Park. In 1953 a storm surge broke through the defences here and caused extensive flooding.
  • The NE Norfolk plan has over 30 such organisation involved. North Norfolk District council is responsible for work to protect cliffs and The Environmental Agency for significant stretches of coastline prone to flooding e.g. Sea Palling.
  • Global sea levels are predicted to rise by 22-80cm by 2080, The East Coast in sinking by an additional 2mm/year due to isostatic changes after the ice melted at the end of the last glacial stage. The net sea level rise will result in the loss of much of the foreshore and beaches.This will result in seaside towns such as Cromer and Sheringham losing their beaches above the high tide mark.
  • A long-term look at the future of the coastal system and coastal outline shows that protecting all homes is no longer an economic or even an environmental option.
  • In the new SMP, Cromer and Sheringham are allocated are allocated long term defence funding with a “Hold The Line” policy.
  • TheSMP can't economically justify protecting many cliff top villages such as Overstrand, Mundesly, Bacton and Happisburgh.The objective is to return the coastline to a more natural state through retreat and realignment.
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