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Hydraulic Power: Waves crash against rock and compess the air in the cracks. Repeated compression will weden the cracks and makes bits of rock break away.

Abrasion: Eroded particles in the water scrape against the rock, removing small peices.

Attrition: Eroded particles in the water smash into each other and break into smaller fragments.

Solution: Weak carbonic acid in the seawater dissolves rock like Chalk and Limestone.

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Mechanical Weathering

Mechanical Weathering is the breakdown of rock without changing its chemical composition, for example freeze thaw weathering:

  • This happens when the temperature alternates above and below 0 degrees 
  • Water gets into the rock which has cracks
  • When the water freezes it expands, putting pressure on the rock.
  • When the water thaws it contracts, releasing the pressure from the rock.
  • Repeating this process will widen the crack and cause the rock to break up
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Chemical Weathering

Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition. an example is Carbonation Weathering that happens in warm and wet conditions:

  • Rainwater had carbon dioxide dissolved in it, which makes it a weak carbonic acid.
  • Carbonic acid reacts with the rock that contains calcium carbonate.
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Destructive waves

Destructive waves, carry out erosional processes.

  • High Frequency (10-14 waves per minute).
  • High and steep.
  • Backwash is more powerful than the swash.
  • Material is removed from the coast 

The main two factors that effect the size and power of the waves are:

  • Wind- the force of the wind on the surface of the water
  • Fetch- the distance of water over which the wind has blown to produce a wave.
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Constructive waves

Constructive waves deposit material to build up the land.

  • Low frequency (6-8 waves per minutes)
  • Low and Long
  • The swash is more powerful than than the backwash, this carries material up the coast.
  • These are made by weaker winds and have a shorter fetch than destructive waves 
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