Coasts case studies

  • Created by: 13cr240
  • Created on: 06-08-19 17:06

Describe ICZM

Integrated coastal zone management is a process that brings togther all of. those involved in the devolpment, management and use of the coast. This ususally involves complete sections of a coastline being managed as one aand not just individual towns as we know that human actions in one place can have serious impacts downshore as sediment moves in ssediment cells. 

The main aims are: 

  • To establish sustainable levels of economic and social activity
  • Resolve environmental, social and economic challenges and conflicts 
  • Protect coastal environments
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Describe SMP

Shoreline management plan is a policy for managing the coastline and responding to the coastal erosion in the next 100 years. 

It assesses potentail erosion and flood risks then identifies sustainable coastal defences and management options which take into account influences of human, natural and historic environments. 

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Describe the population and the land use on the Ni

Population:

  • Home to 2/3 of country population 
  • Responsible for 60% of the countrys food supply. 

Land use: 

  • Beach resorts
  • Fish farms 
  • Agriculture 
  • If flooded 20% of delta would go under threat 
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Describe why the nile delta is receding

  • The delta is shrinking. as the builiding of the Aswan high Dam in the 1960s reduced the amount of sediment accumulation so the. coastline is receding in ssome areas by 175m 
  • Its 270km coast lies at low altitude. mostlybetween 0-1m so melting of ice caps could flood areas. 
  • The aquifer underground is being pumped excessively caaausing land to sink 
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Example of Fjords, raised beach and Rias

Fjord 

  • Sogne Fjord in Norway

Raised beach 

  • In Arran 

Rias 

  • Portsmouth Harbour 
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What is emergent and submerging coastlines caused

Emergent coastlines are caused by an increase in sea level or isotatic recovery 

Submergent coastlines are caused by an increase in sea level or isostatic subsidence 

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Environmental impacts of recession on the Holderne

  • Wildlife behind spurnhead is losing diveristy as many species cannot be. supported as lack of sediment. 
  • Kilnsea wetlandss are at risk as sea water intrusion. 
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Describe the economic impacts of recession on Hold

  • Tourism industry and number of visitorshas dropped 
  • Some settlements are unable to maintain visable population to warrent shops and industries 
  • Money had to be spent on coastal defences
  • Gas terminal at Easington which supplies 25% of Britains gas at risk  
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Describe the social impacts of recession on the ho

  • 30 villages have been lost since Roman times 
  • Many settlements rely on tourism and facilites may be forced to shut 
  • Properties under threat from erosion may lose value leaving owners withnegative equity
  • Migration 
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Facts about the Holderness coastline

  • Its in sediment cell 2 
  • Main sediment is supplied from the erosion of the. weak unconsolidated glacial till rocks 
  • There are groynes at Mappleton 
  • In some areas erosion rate is 10m per year which. is one of the most rapid rates in europe 
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How much has the Earths temperature risen by

In the last century it has risen by 0.75 degrees 

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Describe why the Maldives are at risk from coastal

They lie at very low elevation with thehighest point being 2.4m and paired with the fact that sea levels are rising at a rate of 3 inches per year 

  • Population of around 400'000 in 2017 
  • GDP per capita is $10536
  • HDI is 0.688
  • Highest point is 2.4m 
  • The city of hope is the artifical island which is being built to house environmental refugees 
  • Governemtn is buying land in over countries to house these refugees 
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Developed nation flood risk case study

USA 

It has a national hurricaane centre to report on flood risk 

HDI of 0.924

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Give examples of Igneous ,sedimentary and metamorp

Igneous:

Basalt and granite

Sedimentry:

Sandstone and limestone 

metamorphic:

Slate and schists 

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Give an example of a high and low energy coastline

High energy:

Cornwall and Atlantic facing areas

Low energy:

Linconshire and East coast 

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Describe the geology of St bees and the website

St bees is made up of a mixture of Sandstone and glacial till 

Britishgeologicalsurvey.com

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Describe the fetch around the UK

From the south west starting at the gulf of mexico.

It is around 8000km long

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Give an example of a concordant and discordant coa

Concordant 

  • Lulworth Cove, Dorset

Discordant

  • Holderness coastline
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Which direction are faults and cracks

Joints are vertical cracks

Faults are horozontial cracks

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Give an example of a UK salt marsh and sand dune

Saltmarsh:

  • Solway saltmarsh

Sand dune 

  • Drigg sanddunes
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What is the order of sand dune succession

1-  Embryo dune 

2- Fore dune 

3-Yellow dune 

4-Grey dune

5- Dune slack 

6-Mature dune/heath 

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Give an example of a species in the embryo/fore du

Embryo/fore dune 

  • Sea holly

Yellow dune

  • Marram grass 

Grey dune

  • Wild thyme
  • Lichens
  • Heather 

Dune slacks 

  • Bog cotton
  • Natterjack toads 
  • Rushes
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Describe the difference between attrition and abra

Abrashion is when the sediments are picked up and attack the cliff face

Attrition is when sediments clash toegther to break them down 

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Give an example of a UK barrier beach, tombolo and

Barrier beach:

  • Loebar in Cornwall 

Tombolo 

  • St Ninnians Island in the Shetland Islands 

Cuspate forelands 

  • Dungerness 
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Give an example of a UK bar, offshore bar and head

Bar:

  • Slapton Ley, Devon 

Offshore bar:

  • paddys gap at Milford on sea

Headland:

  • St Bees head
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Give an example of a UK bay ,spit and double spit

Bay:

  • Swanage bay 

Spit:

  • Spurn head 

Double spit:

  • Poole harbour
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Describe the UK sediment cells

Thereare 11 cells and the Cumbrian coast is in sediment cell 11 from Great Orme to the solway firth

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Describe the difference between a swash and drift

A swash aligned beach is one where sedimnet moves up and down the beach with little lateral movement. It produces smoothly curved, concave beaches.

A drift aligned beach is one where sediment moves along the coast by longshore drift. 

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Describe the negative and positive feedback

  • Negative feedback is when the. eqwuilbrium returns to its original position.

If the sediment budget increase negative feedback takes place as there is more deposition as there is more sediment carried in the waves so it returns to its original holding caapcity. 

  • Positive feedback is when one change leads to another 

If there is a reduction in sediment available the waves will erode the cliffs more as the sea has more energy. Therefore positive feedback takes place. 

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