Pros and cons of hard engineering management schem
Sea Walls- concrete structures designed to absorb energy of waves, blocking coastal erosion. Curved sea walls reflect waves, breaking them apart and reducing erosion further.
Pros- protects cliffs, land and buildings. Reduces flooding and erosion. Long-lasting
Cons- unaesthetically pleasing, expensive to build, cost of maintenance high
Groynes- wooden structures built along beach, desinged to collect sand that has passed along due to longshore drift. Builds beaches in areas vulnerable to erosion. Means waves have longer distance to travel to reach coast, reducing their energy and threat of erosion.
Pros- beaches are a natural defence and can be used by tourists. Benefit for economy
Cons- unattractive and costly to maintain
Gabions- rocks built at the bottom of a cliff. Absorb wave energy, reducing erosion. Very cheap
Pros- expensive to maintain and transfer rock
Revetments- wooden or concrete structures along cliff, curved. Reduce energy of waves, protect against erosion.