cuttings,  tissue culture, Adult cell cloning, genetic engineering

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We can use asexual reproduction to clone plants and animals in several different ways.
Plants Can Be Cloned from Cuttings and by Tissue Culture.
1) Gardeners can take cuttings from good parent plants, and then plant them to produce genetically identical copies (clones) of the parent
2) These plants can be reproduced quickly and cheaply.

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tissue culture

Tissue Culture:
This is where a few plant cells are out in a growth medium with hormones, and they then grow into new plants, clones of the parent plant.
 The advantages of using tissue culture are that you can make new plants very quickly, in very little space, and you can grow all year
The disadvantage of both these methods is a "reduced gene pool".
You Can Make Animal Clones Using Embryo Transplants.
Farmers can produce cloned offspring from their best bull or cow, using embryo transplants.
1) Sperm cells are taken from a prize bull and egg cells are taken from a prize cow. The sperm are then used to artificially fertilize
the egg cell. The embryo that develops is then split many times (to form clones) before they become any cells become specialized.
2) These cloned embryos can then be implanted into lots of other cows where they grow into baby calves (which will all be genetically
identical to each other).
3) The advantage is that hundreds of "ideal" offspring can be produced every year from the best bull and cow.
4) The big disadvantage is again reduced gene pool.

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adult cell cloning

Adult Cell Cloning is Another Way to Make a Clone...
1) Adult cell cloning is the technique that was used to create Dolly, a world-famous cloned sheep.
2) Dolly was made by taking a sheep egg cell and removing it's genetic material. A complete set if chromosomes from the cell of an adult
sheep was then inserted into the "empty" egg cell, which then grew into an embryo. This eventually grew into a sheep that was genetically
identical to the original adult.
3) Human adult cell cloning could be used to help treat various diseases. A cloned embryo that is genetically identical to the sufferer
is created and embryonic stem cells extracted from it. (These can become any cell in the body and could be used to grow replacement cells
or organs, without fear of them being rejected by the sufferers immune system.)
4) Some people think it is unethical to do this as the embryos genetically identical to the sufferer are created and then destroyed.
5) Fusion cloning will avoid this problem. Here, an adult cell is fused (joined) to an already existing (but genetically different)
embryonic stem cell. The result is that is has the same properties of a stem cell but the same genes as the adult.

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genetic engineering

Genetic Engineering.
Scientists can now add, remove or change an organisms genes to alter it's characteristics. This is a new science with exciting
possibilities but it can also be dangerous.
Genetic Engineering Uses Enzymes to Cut and Paste Genes.
The basic idea is to move useful genes from one organism's chromosomes into cells of an other.
1) A useful gene is "cut" from one organism's chromosome using enzymes.
2) Enzymes are then used to cut another organism's chromosome and then insert it into the useful gene. This technique is called gene
3) Scientists use this method to do all sorts of things, for example, the human insulin gene can be inserted into bacteria to produce
human insulin.

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