Clinical Characteristics of Sz


Schneider (1959) - First rank symptoms

Symptoms that Schneider (1959) developed 'first rank symptoms', to be diagnosed with Sz one or more of these needs to be present:

  • Thought insertion/withdrawal/broadcasting - thoughts being placed in/removed from mind by external forces, and thoughts being broadcast to others i.e. through TV
  • Auditory  hallucinations and hallucinations from other senses - voices telling the person what to do or feeling/seeing people touching them
  • Delusions of grandeur/persecution/reference - thinking you're napoleon, people thinking others are out to get them and people believin tv/book/film characters are out to get them
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Sub-types of Sz

  • Paranoid -  characterised by delusions and hallucinations, symptoms such as disorganised speech and flat affect
  • Catatonic - characterised by unusual motor activity e.g. agitation or complete immobility 
  • Disorganised - characterised by incoherent and disorganised speech, flat affect and bizarre behaviour. Also includes hallucinations and delusionsbut not as structured as in paranoid Sz.
  • Undifferentiated - when an individual is clearly showing sz symptoms but does not fit neatly into one of the other categories
  • Residual - At least one episode of schizophrenia experiences in the bast but no longer exhibiting prominent signs of the disorder
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General characteristics

  • Psychotic disorder involving a break with reality, chronic, and characterised by periods of loss of touch with reality (psychosis)
  • Repeated psychotic episodes 
  • Persistent disturbances of thought, behaviour, appearance and speech
  • Abnormal affect
  • Social withdrawal
  • Often stabilizes in mid-life
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