Climatic Hazards

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  • Created by: calcook97
  • Created on: 18-04-16 15:40

Drought management in Chad


  • Hight presure Sahel area.
  • Desertification


  • New Dams
  • Re-use waste water 
  • Water Transfers
  • Develop ground water sources.


  • Ration water
  • Improve technology
  • Increase cost of water
  • Reduce water usage (dryland farming).
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North American Blizzard - Feb 2003

  • East Coast, especially Boston and Washington and Lasted 5 Days.


  • High Pressure over Canada forced air from rockies to cross the cold interior.
  • That then met warm moist air of the coast.


  • Snow 40-80cm deep.
  • Very low temperatures and Wind chill.
  • 75 km/h winds and blizzards.


  • 27 deaths.
  • Transport paralysed.
  • Schools closed.
  • Major power cuts, 95,000 homes in West Virginia.
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Smog in Los Angeles

  • 2nd most polluted US city 2008
  • Smog resulted from nitrous oxide reacting with hydrocarbons in intense sunlight

Causes 11 million vehicles, Sunny dry climate, Basin effect, Lack of public Transport.


  • Crops wilted due to lack of light
  • Children have 10-15% reduction in lung capacity
  • 1600 premature deaths due to respiratory problems each year
  • Dangerous levels of smog on 100 days per annum


  • Clean Air Act 1963 - reduces smoke pollution
  • Ban on all outdoor burning
  • Exaust fume control on cars, fines if vehcles dont meet standards
  • Calfornia Air Resources Board (CARB) set up in 1967 to set air quality standards
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Impacts of Low Pressure systems.


  • Trees blown down.
  • Flooding and waterlogging.
  • Landslides, Soil creep and soil erosion.


  • Dampness leads to bronchitis.
  • Wind damages housing.
  • Wet roads and flooding lead to poor driving conditions.


  • Lack of sun, waterlogging and wind damage crops.
  • Strong wind halt flights and close bridges.
  • Winds bring down powerlines.
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European Drought - Feb-Oct 2003

Cause - A series of intense anticyclones forced depressions north or south of the UK


  • Lowest rainfall since 1921, 77% below average
  • High temperatures, 37'C recorded
  • Thunderstorms as air was so dry


  • Sunstroke and Skin cancer.
  • 900 deaths due to poor air quality
  • Water Shortage led to hosepipe bans
  • Roads melted and railways buckled
  • Fires as the land was so dry.
  • Reservoirs dried up (50% below capacity)
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Human activity create Climatic hazards - Global Wa

Earths Temperature due to rise by 6'C this century


  • Burning fossil fuels
  • Transport
  • Deforestation
  • Melting permafrost
  • Farming (Methane)
  • Waste Tips producing methane


  • Sea Level Rise leads to increased flooding 
  • Change in crop pattern leads to famine
  • Reduced rainfall leads to drought
  • Change in economic activity (less winter sport resorts)
  • Wildlife adapt or become extinct.
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Smog in Indonesia 1997-98

An area including Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand covered, 70 Million people affected.

Causes - Burning of Forest, High Pressure, Lack of alternative fuels, Inadequate fire fighting.


  • Short Term - Schools closed, loss of tourism, ships re-routed, 60k treated for smog illnesses.
  • Long Term - 275 died from starvation, Deaths from cholera, loss of biodiversity


  • Put out fires using water bombers from USA and fire fighters from Austrailia
  • Stopped fires being lit by enforcing laws.
  • Start to develop different fuels llike renewable energy 
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Impacts of High Pressure systems.


  • Drought and Fires.
  • Trees wilt in heat as they need more water. 
  • Flash floods when it rains as ground is hard and dry.
  • Rivers and lakes Dry up.
  • Soil subsidence.


  • Poor health such as heat stroke due to heat/fog/cold.
  • High pollen count.
  • Fog causes poor driving conditions


  • Frost kills farmers crops.
  • Heat buckles Railways and melts roads.
  • Forrest fires.
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Indiana Tornado - November 2005

  • Developed along a squall line along a cold front.
  • 4 tornadoes formed from 2 supercells.
  • Cut a row of damage 400m wide and 66km long.
  • Wind speed reached 320 km/h and it lasted 10 hours.


  • 25 killed and 230 injured.
  • $92 million of damage.
  • Gas leaks.
  • 25,000 had no power.
  • 225 homes destroyed.


  • $2.4 million of state aid for housing.
  • Long term grants for rebuilding.
  • Rescue services on site very quickly.
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Hurricane Iva - Grenada September 2004


  • Winds reached 270 km/h
  • Pressure 902 mb 
  • Very litte rain
  • 40m storm surge
  • 121 deaths and $17 billion damges


  • Primary - 121 deaths, 90% homes damaged, 50% population homeless
  • Secondery - Roads blocked by debris, Flooding, Power lines down
  • Tertiary - GDP fell 3%, $150 million of aid, loss of tourism.
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Low Pressure systems - Depressions

  • Small area of fast moving air.
  • Air is rising.
  • Tend to move West to East.
  • Air is rising so clouds develop and brings rain.
  • Winds are strong and blows anticlockwise.
  • Rarely last more than a day.


  • Mild in day, warm at night as cloud trap heat in.
  • High precipitation, often Thunderstorms.
  • Strong and gusty winds.


  • Mild in day warm at night.
  • High precipitation usually rain but can be snow.
  • Strong gusty wind that can produce wind chill.
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Tropical Storms

  • Winds on 64 - 118 km/h
  • Seasonal: June - November
  • Formation
    • High humidity releases latent heat
    • Sea temperature of more than 26'C and at lease 60m deep
    • More than 5' North or South of the Equator for the Coriolis effect
    • Two moist airstreams meet and the denser one undercuts the other
  • Break up over land because of little moisture and friction, also break up over cool seas.
  • Types of Impacts
    • Primary - Homes Destroyed, Deaths and injuries
    • Secondary - Flooding, Pollution, Diseases, Fires, Transport disrupted
    • Tertiary - Destruction of Infrastructure, loss of jobs.


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Hurricane Katrina - August 2005, New Orleans

  • Level 5 Hurricane.
  • Storm Surge of 5m.
  • Winds of 195 km/h.
  • 49% of city is under sea level so water could not escape.


  • Short Term - 1836 dead and 705 missing, 90% population evacuated, Loss of power, Looting,                      Water pollution, Transport disrupted.
  • Long Term - Water and mosquito diseases, 1 million people refuse to return, higer insurance,                      30 oil platforms and 9 refineries put out of action (oil price rise).


  • Salvation army set up 178 canteens.
  • Over 1 million housed out of the area.
  • US Army reinforced 354km of levees.
  • Superdome used as shelter but resulted in crime deaths and diseases.  
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High Pressure systems - Anticyclones

  • Large area of slow-moving air
  • High pressure means air sinks
  • As air sinks it warms
  • Air is sinking so no clouds form and clear skies
  • light winds usually clockwise in the N.hemisphere
  • Usually ends in thunderstorms


  • Hot in Day, Chilly at night
  • Long hours of sunshine
  • Mist in the early morning


  • Cold in day, Freezing at night 
  • Long hours of sunshine but fog gets trapped and leads to anticyclonic gloom
  • Fog common, especially along the coast or near warm seas 
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  • Violent rotating small-scale wind storms 
  • Can reach 500 km/h


  • Seasonal - June to November in the N. Hemisphere.
  • Air masses differing in temperature and humidity meet.
  • Anvil thunderclouds (Supercells) exsist.
  • Downward current of cool air and almost constant vertical conditions.
  • Very unstable air - surface winds converge or very hot surfaces.
  • Flat land, easily disrupted by relief.
  • Small and short lived but highly destructive.


  • Primary - Destruction of buildings and crops, Deaths.
  • Secondary - Cost of rescue, Loss of power, Depression. 
  • Tertiary - Cost of rebuilding, loss of jobs. 
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