Drought management in Chad
- Hight presure Sahel area.
- New Dams
- Re-use waste water
- Water Transfers
- Develop ground water sources.
- Ration water
- Improve technology
- Increase cost of water
- Reduce water usage (dryland farming).
North American Blizzard - Feb 2003
- East Coast, especially Boston and Washington and Lasted 5 Days.
- High Pressure over Canada forced air from rockies to cross the cold interior.
- That then met warm moist air of the coast.
- Snow 40-80cm deep.
- Very low temperatures and Wind chill.
- 75 km/h winds and blizzards.
- 27 deaths.
- Transport paralysed.
- Schools closed.
- Major power cuts, 95,000 homes in West Virginia.
Smog in Los Angeles
- 2nd most polluted US city 2008
- Smog resulted from nitrous oxide reacting with hydrocarbons in intense sunlight
Causes - 11 million vehicles, Sunny dry climate, Basin effect, Lack of public Transport.
- Crops wilted due to lack of light
- Children have 10-15% reduction in lung capacity
- 1600 premature deaths due to respiratory problems each year
- Dangerous levels of smog on 100 days per annum
- Clean Air Act 1963 - reduces smoke pollution
- Ban on all outdoor burning
- Exaust fume control on cars, fines if vehcles dont meet standards
- Calfornia Air Resources Board (CARB) set up in 1967 to set air quality standards
Impacts of Low Pressure systems.
- Trees blown down.
- Flooding and waterlogging.
- Landslides, Soil creep and soil erosion.
- Dampness leads to bronchitis.
- Wind damages housing.
- Wet roads and flooding lead to poor driving conditions.
- Lack of sun, waterlogging and wind damage crops.
- Strong wind halt flights and close bridges.
- Winds bring down powerlines.
European Drought - Feb-Oct 2003
Cause - A series of intense anticyclones forced depressions north or south of the UK
- Lowest rainfall since 1921, 77% below average
- High temperatures, 37'C recorded
- Thunderstorms as air was so dry
- Sunstroke and Skin cancer.
- 900 deaths due to poor air quality
- Water Shortage led to hosepipe bans
- Roads melted and railways buckled
- Fires as the land was so dry.
- Reservoirs dried up (50% below capacity)
Human activity create Climatic hazards - Global Wa
Earths Temperature due to rise by 6'C this century
- Burning fossil fuels
- Melting permafrost
- Farming (Methane)
- Waste Tips producing methane
- Sea Level Rise leads to increased flooding
- Change in crop pattern leads to famine
- Reduced rainfall leads to drought
- Change in economic activity (less winter sport resorts)
- Wildlife adapt or become extinct.
Smog in Indonesia 1997-98
An area including Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand covered, 70 Million people affected.
Causes - Burning of Forest, High Pressure, Lack of alternative fuels, Inadequate fire fighting.
- Short Term - Schools closed, loss of tourism, ships re-routed, 60k treated for smog illnesses.
- Long Term - 275 died from starvation, Deaths from cholera, loss of biodiversity
- Put out fires using water bombers from USA and fire fighters from Austrailia
- Stopped fires being lit by enforcing laws.
- Start to develop different fuels llike renewable energy
Impacts of High Pressure systems.
- Drought and Fires.
- Trees wilt in heat as they need more water.
- Flash floods when it rains as ground is hard and dry.
- Rivers and lakes Dry up.
- Soil subsidence.
- Poor health such as heat stroke due to heat/fog/cold.
- High pollen count.
- Fog causes poor driving conditions
- Frost kills farmers crops.
- Heat buckles Railways and melts roads.
- Forrest fires.
Indiana Tornado - November 2005
- Developed along a squall line along a cold front.
- 4 tornadoes formed from 2 supercells.
- Cut a row of damage 400m wide and 66km long.
- Wind speed reached 320 km/h and it lasted 10 hours.
- 25 killed and 230 injured.
- $92 million of damage.
- Gas leaks.
- 25,000 had no power.
- 225 homes destroyed.
- $2.4 million of state aid for housing.
- Long term grants for rebuilding.
- Rescue services on site very quickly.
Hurricane Iva - Grenada September 2004
- Winds reached 270 km/h
- Pressure 902 mb
- Very litte rain
- 40m storm surge
- 121 deaths and $17 billion damges
- Primary - 121 deaths, 90% homes damaged, 50% population homeless
- Secondery - Roads blocked by debris, Flooding, Power lines down
- Tertiary - GDP fell 3%, $150 million of aid, loss of tourism.
Low Pressure systems - Depressions
- Small area of fast moving air.
- Air is rising.
- Tend to move West to East.
- Air is rising so clouds develop and brings rain.
- Winds are strong and blows anticlockwise.
- Rarely last more than a day.
- Mild in day, warm at night as cloud trap heat in.
- High precipitation, often Thunderstorms.
- Strong and gusty winds.
- Mild in day warm at night.
- High precipitation usually rain but can be snow.
- Strong gusty wind that can produce wind chill.
- Winds on 64 - 118 km/h
- Seasonal: June - November
- High humidity releases latent heat
- Sea temperature of more than 26'C and at lease 60m deep
- More than 5' North or South of the Equator for the Coriolis effect
- Two moist airstreams meet and the denser one undercuts the other
- Break up over land because of little moisture and friction, also break up over cool seas.
- Types of Impacts
- Primary - Homes Destroyed, Deaths and injuries
- Secondary - Flooding, Pollution, Diseases, Fires, Transport disrupted
- Tertiary - Destruction of Infrastructure, loss of jobs.
Hurricane Katrina - August 2005, New Orleans
- Level 5 Hurricane.
- Storm Surge of 5m.
- Winds of 195 km/h.
- 49% of city is under sea level so water could not escape.
- Short Term - 1836 dead and 705 missing, 90% population evacuated, Loss of power, Looting, Water pollution, Transport disrupted.
- Long Term - Water and mosquito diseases, 1 million people refuse to return, higer insurance, 30 oil platforms and 9 refineries put out of action (oil price rise).
- Salvation army set up 178 canteens.
- Over 1 million housed out of the area.
- US Army reinforced 354km of levees.
- Superdome used as shelter but resulted in crime deaths and diseases.
High Pressure systems - Anticyclones
- Large area of slow-moving air
- High pressure means air sinks
- As air sinks it warms
- Air is sinking so no clouds form and clear skies
- light winds usually clockwise in the N.hemisphere
- Usually ends in thunderstorms
- Hot in Day, Chilly at night
- Long hours of sunshine
- Mist in the early morning
- Cold in day, Freezing at night
- Long hours of sunshine but fog gets trapped and leads to anticyclonic gloom
- Fog common, especially along the coast or near warm seas
- Violent rotating small-scale wind storms
- Can reach 500 km/h
- Seasonal - June to November in the N. Hemisphere.
- Air masses differing in temperature and humidity meet.
- Anvil thunderclouds (Supercells) exsist.
- Downward current of cool air and almost constant vertical conditions.
- Very unstable air - surface winds converge or very hot surfaces.
- Flat land, easily disrupted by relief.
- Small and short lived but highly destructive.
- Primary - Destruction of buildings and crops, Deaths.
- Secondary - Cost of rescue, Loss of power, Depression.
- Tertiary - Cost of rebuilding, loss of jobs.