- King of the gods and god or thunder, lightening & rain
- Son of Saturn
- Symbols- eagle (fetch lightning bolts), shield with stormcloud, scepter and breast plate
- Also known as Jove
- Helped overthrow saturn- took place as god of the sea
- God of sea creatures, horses, earthquakes and storms
- symbol is trident
- Queen of the Gods
- Goddess of women, childbirth, marriage and fertility
- Symbols- crown, peacock and scepter
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- Virgin goddess- daughter of Juno and Metis
- Goddess of wisdom, poetry, tactical warfare, weaving, crafts, magic and inventor of music
- Symbols- owl, helmet, spear, aegis (cloak with snakes around the edge)
- King of underworld and God of death and the dead
- Looked over funerals, and made sure everyone had a proper burial
- God of hidden wealth- gold, silver etc...
- Son of Saturn and pictured on throne next to his wife with a sceptor decorated with a bird
- Symbols- cap of invisibility, black chariot and black horses.
- Virgin goddess of the hearth, home, fire and family
- Goddess of fertility and peace
- Symbols- Fire, veils, ovens, baked goods, long dress, head covered and donkey
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- God of war- son of Jupiter and Juno
- God of spring, growth, agriculture and fertility- father of Roman people
- Symbols- full body armour, crested helmet, shield and spear
- Second in importance to Jupiter- very prominent and much worshipped God
- Twin of Diana and son of Jupiter
- God of music, poetry, sun, medicine, knowledge, education and light and healing
- Symbols- lyre, laurel wreath and a raven
- Same name in both Roman and Greek mythology
- Goddess of grain, harvest and motherly love
- Adopted as a goddess during a terrible famine
- Symbols- sheaths of wheat, cornucopia, honey, acorns and a torch
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- Messenger and god of trade, communication and business
- Worshipped by merchants and travellers
- Symbols- winged sandals, winged cap and wand with a serpent
- God of thieves
- Goddess of love, beauty, fertility, marriage and pro-creation
- Symbols- girdle, shells, doves, swans, hand mirror and being naked!
- Myrtle doves, sparrow and horses
- Roman state descended from her
- Virgin goddess of the hunt, the moon and protection of young women
- Twin of Apollo and daughter of Jupiter
- Symbols- bow & arrow, moon, woodland animals, short tunic
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- A tempulum was any space marked out as sacred
- It did not need to be a building, although buildings are common types of tempulums
- Groves, gardens and places of outstanding beauty were also sometimes Tempulums
- The buildings were influenced by Greek temple design
- The base was called the podium
- There were engaged columns supporting the roof, and freestanding columns near the porch
- Entrace steps would lead to the porch, which would lead into the cella- the single roon in which a statue of the god stood.
- The alter was always outside, as sacrifices occured and a significant amount of mess was made.
- Temples could also be Museums, Art galleries and banks
- The senate also sometimes met at temples.
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- Sacrifice was a vital part of Roman religion
- Sacer is the Latin for something which is divine property
- Facere is to make, so sacrificium means to make something into divine property
- Sacrifice was thought to strengthen a person's relationship with the gods and make them feel like they owe that person a favour
- Ovid tells us " Gifts believe me win over both men and gods. Giving gifts keeps Jupiter himself content."
- Sacrefice could therefore be seen as a type of business deal
- 1- ask a god for help- this is reflected in the Latin formula "do ut des" which means "I give so that you may give"
- 2- To thank a god for help given- Horace tells us that he offered his clothes in thanks for not drowning at sea in Odes 1:5
- 3- To simply honour a god in order to keep them on side
- Cato tells us that he wanted protection in return for the sacrifice of an animal
- A Piaculum was an offering to restore good relations with a god
- Safrifices were not always animals- they could be articles of value (art, weapons etc..), statues, food and drink and most importantly mola salsa (salted meal) prepared by the Vestal Virgins
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- However, the most impressive offering was the life and bood of an animal
- There were many strict rules for sacrifices-
- No foreigner was allowed to be present
- Nobody was allowed to hear the most important parts of the prayers
- The ceremony had to be perfect in word and action- any mistakes meant that the whole thing had to be restarted
- A Roman preparing a sacrifice would agree on an appointed time with the priest of the relevent temple
- On the appointed day, he would buy an animal- it had to be perfect, with no blemish
- Certain animals would usually be offered to specific gods- eg a heifer offered to Jupiter
- The sacrificer would wear his best toga, and tie ribbons to the animal.
- They would lead it through the streets to the temple. If it refused to walk willingly, or stumbled along the way, it was seen as a bad omen, and a new animal would be found.
- The ceremony took place outside the temple and was overseen by a priest, who covered his head with the folds of his toga and wash his hands in sacred water before the ceremony
- The animal's head was sprinkled with wine and mola salsa, the sacred bread while the priest said a prayer.
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- The animal was then stunned by a hammer blow to the head, delivered by an attendant
- Next, it's throat was cut with a knife.
- The animal was then disembowelled and it's innards removed. A soothsayer would examine the organs
- If they were discoloured or mishapen, the soothsayer would declare the omens bad
- A flute player would play throughout, trying to drown out any unwanted noises; even a sneeze could be interpreted as a bad omen.
- Any problem in the ceremony could be interpreted as a bad omen, and the process would need to be started all over again.
- If the innards were good, they would be burnt in a fire on the alter as an offering to the god. The rest of the meat was cooked and shared out to the participants at a feast.
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