CLA: Literacy

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READING

Reading Book Stages

Baby and Toddler
- Labelling and packaging, pragmatics.
- Hypernyms, hyponyms - Jean Aitcheson.
- Nouns & adjectives common - Catherine Nelson.


Early Story Books
- Understand words and structure - Unable to use them yet. 
- Pseudo reading - Make story up. 


Reading Schemes
- Staged by difficulty - Acquire fluency.
- Instructional - Purpose to teach.  
- Narrative - Eg Magic Key.

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READING

Chall's Stages Of Reading Development

0 - Pre reading and psuedo reading
Pretend reading, some word recognition, predicting words. 

1 - Initial reading and decoding
Relationship between phonemes and graphemes, simple texts with frequent lexis. 

2 - Confirmation and fluency
Reading quickly and fluently, pay attention to word meaning. 

3 - Reading for learning
Read for information and knowledge.

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READING

Cues - Ways to decode texts
Graphophonic
Relate shape of word to similar words to interpret them. 

Semantic 
Connections between words and meaning to decode new ones. 

Visual
Using visual narrative to interpret unfamiliar words. 

Syntactic
Use knowledge of word order to work out if word is in correct context. 

Contextual 
Comparing situation in story to own experience/pragmatic understanding. 

Miscue
Errors; visual cue to guess word, substitute a word for another, miss a word.

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READING

Reading Techniques 

Look and Say/Whole Word Approach
- Recognise words rather than phonemes.
- Flash cards with images.

Phonics (phonemes)
- Sounds made by letter blends.
- Copying sounds in utterances. 

Analytic Phonics
- Look and say approach - flash cards.
- Break down - Phonemes and graphemes. 
- Onset (vowel/syllable) at start, rime (rest of word).

Synthetic Phonics
- Sounding out each phoneme - Blending. 
- Link to actions - Kicking K.
- VAK - Times table chants. 

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SPELLING

5 Stages of Spelling 

Pre Phonemic
Scribbling, pretend writing, some letters recognisable. 

Semi Phonic
Link letter shaoes and sounds to write words. 

Phonetic
Understand all phonemes can be represented by graphemes.

Transactional
Aware of letter combinations and patterns - "magic e" rule. 

Conventional 
Most words spelt correctly. 

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SPELLING

Problems With Spelling

Alphabet - 26 letters, but make 44 phonemes. 

Digraphs  - Ph, Sh, ie.

Letter Sounds - Affected by positioning in the word - I before E.

Homophones  - Rowed/Road.

Accent - Effects pronunciation of words. 

Inflexions - Plurals, ing, effect pronunciation. 

Affixes - Ough, tion. 

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SPELLING

Categories of Spelling Error

Insertion 
Adding extra letters. 

Omission 
Missing letters out. 

Substitution 
Swapping one letter for another. 

Transposition
Reversing correct order of letters in a word. 

Phonetic Spelling
Guessing the spelling by spelling it how it sounds.

Over/Under Generalisation
Extend grammatical rule beyond normal use - I runned = I ran. 

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WRITING

Stages of Writing

1 - Drawing.

2 - Letter like forms.

3 - Copied letters. 

4 - Childs name and string of letters. 

5 - Words.

6 - Sentences.

7 - Text.

Early Writing
- Emergent Writing - Early scribble writing. 
- Ascender - Letter goes above usual height.
- Descender - Letter goes below baseline. 

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WRITING

Kroll's 4 Phases of Development

Preparation - Up to 6 years
Basic skills acquired and principles of spelling.

Consolidation - 7/8 years
Writing similar to speech, colloquial register. 

Differentiation - 9/10 years
Writing different to speech, aware of different audiences.

Integration - Teens
Personal voice and language choices, controlled style. 

Britton's 3 Modes of Writing 
- Expressive - Develops first, resembles speech.

- Poetic - Manipulate language; rhyme, rhythm, alliteration.

- Transactional - Essay writing. formal, chronological. 

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WRITING

Genre Awareness 

First genres children exposed to reflect their own experiences;
- Party Invites.
- Xmas lists.
- Stories.

Initial Understanding;
- Reader/writer relationship. 
- Grammar and vocab.
- Audience and tone. 

Further Development;
- Increased pragmatic awareness. 
- Tone reflects writers personality. 

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WRITING

Rothery's Categories of Writing 

Observation/Comment
Observation followed by evaluative comment. 

Recount 
Chronological sequence of events, written subjectively.

Report
Factual description of events, not chronological. 

Narrative
Story genre, scene set for events to occur and be resolved in the end. 

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