CLA: Literacy



Reading Book Stages

Baby and Toddler
- Labelling and packaging, pragmatics.
- Hypernyms, hyponyms - Jean Aitcheson.
- Nouns & adjectives common - Catherine Nelson.

Early Story Books
- Understand words and structure - Unable to use them yet. 
- Pseudo reading - Make story up. 

Reading Schemes
- Staged by difficulty - Acquire fluency.
- Instructional - Purpose to teach.  
- Narrative - Eg Magic Key.

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Chall's Stages Of Reading Development

0 - Pre reading and psuedo reading
Pretend reading, some word recognition, predicting words. 

1 - Initial reading and decoding
Relationship between phonemes and graphemes, simple texts with frequent lexis. 

2 - Confirmation and fluency
Reading quickly and fluently, pay attention to word meaning. 

3 - Reading for learning
Read for information and knowledge.

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Cues - Ways to decode texts
Relate shape of word to similar words to interpret them. 

Connections between words and meaning to decode new ones. 

Using visual narrative to interpret unfamiliar words. 

Use knowledge of word order to work out if word is in correct context. 

Comparing situation in story to own experience/pragmatic understanding. 

Errors; visual cue to guess word, substitute a word for another, miss a word.

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Reading Techniques 

Look and Say/Whole Word Approach
- Recognise words rather than phonemes.
- Flash cards with images.

Phonics (phonemes)
- Sounds made by letter blends.
- Copying sounds in utterances. 

Analytic Phonics
- Look and say approach - flash cards.
- Break down - Phonemes and graphemes. 
- Onset (vowel/syllable) at start, rime (rest of word).

Synthetic Phonics
- Sounding out each phoneme - Blending. 
- Link to actions - Kicking K.
- VAK - Times table chants. 

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5 Stages of Spelling 

Pre Phonemic
Scribbling, pretend writing, some letters recognisable. 

Semi Phonic
Link letter shaoes and sounds to write words. 

Understand all phonemes can be represented by graphemes.

Aware of letter combinations and patterns - "magic e" rule. 

Most words spelt correctly. 

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Problems With Spelling

Alphabet - 26 letters, but make 44 phonemes. 

Digraphs  - Ph, Sh, ie.

Letter Sounds - Affected by positioning in the word - I before E.

Homophones  - Rowed/Road.

Accent - Effects pronunciation of words. 

Inflexions - Plurals, ing, effect pronunciation. 

Affixes - Ough, tion. 

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Categories of Spelling Error

Adding extra letters. 

Missing letters out. 

Swapping one letter for another. 

Reversing correct order of letters in a word. 

Phonetic Spelling
Guessing the spelling by spelling it how it sounds.

Over/Under Generalisation
Extend grammatical rule beyond normal use - I runned = I ran. 

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Stages of Writing

1 - Drawing.

2 - Letter like forms.

3 - Copied letters. 

4 - Childs name and string of letters. 

5 - Words.

6 - Sentences.

7 - Text.

Early Writing
- Emergent Writing - Early scribble writing. 
- Ascender - Letter goes above usual height.
- Descender - Letter goes below baseline. 

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Kroll's 4 Phases of Development

Preparation - Up to 6 years
Basic skills acquired and principles of spelling.

Consolidation - 7/8 years
Writing similar to speech, colloquial register. 

Differentiation - 9/10 years
Writing different to speech, aware of different audiences.

Integration - Teens
Personal voice and language choices, controlled style. 

Britton's 3 Modes of Writing 
- Expressive - Develops first, resembles speech.

- Poetic - Manipulate language; rhyme, rhythm, alliteration.

- Transactional - Essay writing. formal, chronological. 

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Genre Awareness 

First genres children exposed to reflect their own experiences;
- Party Invites.
- Xmas lists.
- Stories.

Initial Understanding;
- Reader/writer relationship. 
- Grammar and vocab.
- Audience and tone. 

Further Development;
- Increased pragmatic awareness. 
- Tone reflects writers personality. 

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Rothery's Categories of Writing 

Observation followed by evaluative comment. 

Chronological sequence of events, written subjectively.

Factual description of events, not chronological. 

Story genre, scene set for events to occur and be resolved in the end. 

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