S. B. Heath
She found, that early school literary experiences reflected middle class values - activities based around shared reading and creative writing. The other communities' activities were more oral, like storytelling, rhymes and singing.
She argued that, because literacy is shaped by the community and at home, school should recognise them, instead of posing their own.
Analysing for cues
- any miscues? How many?
- pauses before nouns
- visual cues
- prosodic features (stress)
- semantic and grammatical awarness
- understanding of dialogue
Frith - reading stages
- logographic stage (pronounce individual letters, letters connected with sounds, child can only link words to one phoneme)
- alphabetic stage (more comfortable with alphabet, can combine graphemes to make longer phonemes)
- ortographic stage (recognise strings of phonemes without having to decode them, greater phonological awarness - recognise more sound patterns, analogy - compare and apply patterns and rules
Chall - reading stages
- pre - reading - up to 6 years (children turn pages of books and repeat what parents had previously read to them, pretending to read; rely on images to determine what the text is saying, use logographic information to guess words, realise words are made up of sounds, recognise rhytm and alliteration)
- initial reading/decoding stage - 6-7 years (they can read simple texts, but rely heavily on it and visual images, realise letter combinations represent sounds, become aware of vowels and vowel sounds)
- confirmation and gluing stage - 7-8 years old (automatically decode words, high levels of comprehension and reading, ability to become more fluent, can control the pase and is comfortable with reading situations)
Chall - reading stages (continued)
- reading to learn - 8-14 years (reading to learn, acquire new knowledge - before this child relies on environment and speech, words mean more to them, able to bring previous experiences/knowledge to the reading, learn facts from a singular view point, they need direct reconstruction, learn to read narrative texts)
- multiple viewpoints - 14-18 years (begin reading and dealing with multiple viewpoints, analyse and react critically, able to deal with layers of facts and edit them, able to read complex texts) - construction and reconstruction - 18+ years (education purposes, aware of relevant and irrevelant information, form their opinions, show more interest, ability to crticise and question texts)
- Dombey found that rhyming helps children to to relate sound patterns and letter clusters, which assists both reading and spelling
- Konza argued that phonemic awarness is one of the most important skills for reading successfully (ability to to hear, separate and manipulate individual sounds and phonemes)
Skinner, Bruner and Vygotsky also relevant.