CLA writing theories

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Writing is not only about the physical control of

- combining words and sentences to convey ideas

- recognising the target audience

- using recognisable dicourse and genre conventions

- manipulating language to achieve specific purposes 

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To write, child needs to be able to use...

- lexis and semantics

- grammar

- phonology (e.g. punctuation choices)

- pragmatics (social conventions of different texts)

- discourse

- graphology

- register

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Stages of writing

- drawing

- letter-like forms

- copied letters

- child's name and string's of letters

- words

- sentences

- text

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Kroll's phases of writing development

- preparation ( basic motor skills acquired, some princpiles of spelling), up to 6 years

- conslidation (writing similar to spoken language - more casual, colloquial regiester, strings of clauses joined by 'and', unfinished sentences), 7-8 years

- differentiation (awarness writing is separate from speech emerges, stronger understanding of writing for diffrent audiences and purposes), 9-10 years

- integration (develops 'personal voice' in writing, controlled writing - appropriate linguistic choices made consistently), mid-teens

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Joan Rothery - early writing categories

- observation/ comment ('I saw a tiger' - observation, 'it was very large' - evaluative comment; sometimes mixed!)

- recount (usually a chronological sequence of events, follows the pattern - orientation (sets the scene) - event - re-orientation (completes the writing)

- report ( a factual and objective description of events or things; it tends not to be chronological

- narrative (a story genre where the secene is set for events to occur and be resolved at the end; orientation - complication - resolution - coda (not always added), very complex, therefore few children will achieve the whole structure early on, even though they read a lot of narrative stories)

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Younger children (7-10 years) predominantly write chronologically ordered texts. Personal writing is the type that children write first, colser to everyday speech. Impersonal - science experiments etc. 

Stories - youngest writers prefer 3rd person narration, change to 1st person perspective and the content is ually based on personal preferences.

Factual writing - youngest writers prefer 1st person narration, change to 3rd person around 9 years.

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Britton - modes of writing

- expressive - first mode to develop because it resembles speech. Uses 1st person perspective and the content is usually based on personal preferences

- poetic - develops gradually, requires skills in crafting and shaping language, but is encouraged early on because of its creativity. Phonological features such as rhyme, rhytm and alliteration, as well as descriptive devices such as adjectives and similes, are common

- transactional - develops last (around secondary school), once children have finally disassociated speech from writing - styles as academic essays - impersonal in style and detached tone, created by using 3rd person. Formal sentence structures and graphological features used to signpost sections and ideas, tend to be chronological

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Katherine Perera - classifying texts

- chronological - rely on action words (verbs) and on linking ideas together using connectives

- non - chronological texts - are considered harder to write as they rely on logical connections between texts

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Peccei - learning to spell

- pre - communicative stage ('writing' using squiggles)

- phonological segmentation stage (will attempt to capture sound of a word)

- orthographic stage (learn to put the silent 'e' ednings)

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The five spelling stages

- pre - phonemic (imitate writing; some letter shapes are decipherable)

- semi - phonetic (link letter shapes and sounds)

- phonetic (understanding that all phonemes can be represented by graphemes, words become more complete)

- transactional (combine phonemic knowledge with visual memory, awarness of letter combinations and patterns, including the magic 'e' rule)

- conventional (spell most words correctly)

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Graves - the importance of proof-reading

Young writers do not re-read or alter what they have written, they learns to make small revisions by rubbing out. When they learn to cross out, work changes grmatically.

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Grammatical development and discourse- theories

- Birnbaum said that older and abler children are more willing to make mistakes, less proficient counterparts are more interested in creating a neat copy

- Perl said that children read what they intended to write, not what they actually written

- King and Rentel suggested that the child's use of connectives increases fourfold between ages 7 to 10

- Hoey proposed the problem - solution structure: situation, problen, solution, result, conclusion.

- Davies - setting, event, conclusion

- McCabe proposed leapfrog narratives; events may be in jumbled order, some may be missed out, especially if they show the child in bad light

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