long term causes
- price of food 6 times that in 1500 in 1640, huge inflation and economic issues which caused unrest with landlords and tennants. Charles' extravagance didn't help.
- he levied T&P without parliaments permission which annoyed merchants. Irritating feudal rights beloning to the crown which had fallen into dissuse were revived. Monopolies distraint of knighthood ship money etc. Private property wasnt protected so rebellion.
- Puritans resented heavily to paying tithes, disliked church courts which placed embarrassing punishments, didnt want to pay for a clergy who didnt preach. hated laud too catholic as he tried to get rid of puritanism. Puritan preachers wanted to end tyranny of archbishops. Inability of the church to comprehend the puritans.
- royalists thought attack on the crown had gone far enough. Decline in respect for the crown. the bourgeoise were let in 'Marxist'. Some just wanted reform not overthrowing, thought charles had been arbitory.
- 1642 October Battle of Edgehill. king had north and west while parliament had south east and the campaigns of the royalists 1642-3 were focused on taking london back. The scots entering in 1643 meant parliament had north aswell. 1645 battle of naseby the royalist army weakened and the New Model Army began winning.
- Royalist soldiers were undisciplined, weakness of royalist administration and the kings leadership. Both relied on locally-based forces, run by county committees and both faced difficulity in pursuading them to release forces for duty elsewhere until late 1644. Both experienced internal divisions and rivalries. King's advisors disagreed over war aims and military commanders disagreed. P was divided between 'Peace' party and 'war' party. Main reasons P won - Failure of royalists to get london, Superior resources, military and political restructuring in 1644-5 that enabled those resources to be effectively exploited.
- Kings northern army under Earl of Newcastle had secure base in york, defeated Ps yorkshire army at Adwalton moor june1643. Sir Ralph hopton secured Cronwall and devon. In july pice rupert took bristol while Maurice captured dorchester to gain control of dorset. Didn't need to attack london as could rely on internal pressure to force P leaders to sign peace treaty. King had experienced cavaliers, many donated money had most of the gentry, Rupert of the rhineand Maurice of nassau were experienced from 30 years war. so how did P win?
- The navy helped P secure hull, gloucester and plymouth, hulll was a safe refuge for rest of yorkshire army and newcastle refused to march south even with hostile forces on his back. Cromwell and Manchester had captured Gainsborough, Essex got back Gloucester and beat royalists at newbury on his return.
- Main changes were work of John Pym. Excise tax got a lot of moneymay 1643. Maintaned peace between 2 parties. 1643 solemn leage and covenant with scots, scots wanted Presbyterianism to be introduced in England. Scots helped P win the battle of marston moor 1644. York then surrendered to P and the kings control of the north was ended. Essex had humiliating defeat at lostwithiel and had to return to london with only 600 men and no weapons. Essex and Manchester were only commanders because of their nobel status not military experience.
-The self-denying ordinance solved this by meaning that no MPs could be commanders this allowed the creation of the New Model Army. proffessional army of 22,000 men and Fairfax was the commander who aim was for military success and to leave politics alone. Took time to train and gain unity but was a military revolution in 1645. First success in Naseby 1645, fairfax moved round the cuontry quickly defeating royalists, June he defeated Goring's army in somerset, september Rupert surrendered in Bristol and by the end of the year the royalist were forced to wales and south west. Early 1646 the NMA toko control of devon and cornwall and in may the king accepted defeat on May 5th.
- P captured the kings baggage train in battle of naseby and published his correspondance which showed his determination to gain victory on his terms, didn't want peace, would get help from irish and popists.
- NMA was so motivated due to religious radicalism and they were well paid, proffessional discipline and thorough training.
P Short term - solemn league and covenant, Excise tax, Self denying ordinance - Marston moor, NMA - Naseby, somerset and bristol, Scots ended kings control of North and pushed Newcastle back to York.
P Long term - Connected, South east and London wealthy and the navy.
King adv - Cavalry, Maurice and Rupert 30 year war experience, Gentry wealthy, could ride and had military experience, won Edgehill so advanced.
King Dis - Unconnected (north), ineffective leaders, couldn't keep discipline, money for oxford, failed to get London
P dis - Pym died, Parliament divided, local armies (unconnected) Essex and Manchester, Essex was leader of Peace party so his failure at Lostwithel made them look stupid.
1647 - P wanted to disband NMA, had to save money. Didnt make provision for indemnity or arrears. Army elected Agitators who put demands to officers, levellers persuaded them to adopt their programme of political change. Cromwell and Ireton worked in P to get demands of soldiers hear, P ordered army to disband, Agitators informed Fairfax they wouldn't, next day council of officers supported them. Agitators ordered George Joyce to seize King. General army council was formed to help negotiate Grandees were generals Agitators were representatives of rank and file. Army agreed to Solemn Engagement to hold together until a fair settlement was reached.
1642 - Edgehill, king advances, not allowed in London so set up base in Oxford.
1643 - King wins Adwalton moor battle. Prince rupert captures Bristol. Solemn league and covenant, and excise tax Pym. Pym died. Draws at battle of Lansdown and Naseby. P capture gloucester and East Yorkshire.
1644 - Marston moor battle win. Essex trapped in Cornwall, embarrassing defeat returned with only 600 men. Divisions in P esp crom and Manchester. Inconclusive battle of Newbury.
1645 - Laud executed. NMA/ self denying ordinance. Won Naseby. Rupert surrenders Bristol.
1646 - King surrenders to Scots in Nottinghamshire. Oxford surrenders to NMA.
1647 - Scots handed Charles to P. King signs engagement to get scots help.
1648 - Second civil war, scottish army enters England, Crom defeats welsh uprising then catches Scots. Colchester surrenders ending second CW. Prides purge
1649 - Charles executed