Civil Rights Movement- part 2

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  • Created by: Rosie
  • Created on: 20-04-13 17:10

1945 social situation

  • North
    • no de jure segregation
    • 48% blacks live in urban area
    • war inspiration
    • ghettoism, police brutality and crime
    • lack of education
    • de facto segregation
  • South
    • challenging Jim Crow laws
    • more activism- boycotts
    • NAACP numbers increase to 450,000
    • de jure and de facto segregation
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1945 economic situation

  • North
    • trade unions create pressure for equality
    • more job opportunities-factories
    • unskilled and low-paid jobs
    • ridiculously high rent for poor conditions
    • whites don't want to live near them as house prices drop
  • South
    • growing middle class of teachers, lawyers, doctors...
    • free college education for returning soldiers (GI Bill of Rights)
    • mainly domestic service and manual labour= worst jobs, sharecropping
    • demobilisation means whites return to jobs
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1945 political situation

  • North
    • can vote now because of new boundaries
    • 250,000 blacks in harlem vote for black congressman
    • total of only 2 black congressman
  • South
    • NAACP make voting easier (Smith v Allwright)
    • literacy tests
    • not many sympathiser candidates
    • South only represented  by whites
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1945 legal situation

  • North
    • not de jure discrimination
    • de facto discrimination
    • rare to see black policemen
    • police brutality
  • South
    • pressure built up for change
    • all judges, jurors, officials are white
    • no sentences passed when returning black servicemen are beaten
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CORE's Journey of Reconciliation (1947)

  • to show differences between de jure and de facto and Morgan v Virginia ruling
  • 8 black and 8 white members travel by bus from northern states to southern states
  • black members sit in white areas
  • white members sit in black areas
  • successfully prove bus companies in south ignore rulings
  • 12 members arrested
  • failed to enforce desegregation of southern bus services
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Direct Action (1945-55)

    • encourage black voting registration
    • 1947 picket New Orleans biggest department stores
    • 1953 boycott school in Lafayette= inferior to white school
    • lynching investigations and court cases into lynches reduce the number of lynchings
  • UDL
    • week long bus boycott (1953)- too short for media attention and to hurt companies,
    • Operation Free Lift- a carpooling scheme
  • CNO
    • encourage Arkansas voter registration from 1.5% to 17.3%
  • CORE
    • Journey of Reconciliation (1947)
    • increase confidence
    • non violent protest achieved
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Emmett Till (1955)

  • brutally murdered at 14 years old
  • mutilated body
  • wolf whistled at a white woman
  • first time white men were charged with murder of a black
  • BUT result was not guilty
  • encouraged many blacks to become civil rights activists
  • his mother had an open casket funeral to demonstrate what was done
  • Eisenhower made no comment
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Autherine Lucy (1955)

  • successfully took Uni. of Alabama to court for refusing admission
  • BUT they expelled her and said she lied when she said they expelled because of her race
  • first expulsion of a black student form Uni. of Alabama
  • Eisenhower kept quiet
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1945-1955 Conclusion

  • campaign methods developed
  • shows the importance of presidential action
  • successful cases showing segregation was unconstitutional
  • CORE NAACP UDL CNO organise campaigns, test rulings, challenge segregation
  •  Brown and Brown II highlight reluctance of white authorities to put Supreme Court Rulings into action
  • Progress was slow despite best efforts to end segregation laws
  • many in Congress oppose integration
  • Eisenhower laissez faire attitude to desegregating South
  • government, judges, police, jurors resist change and intimidate campainers
  • Southern racists quickly organise themselves to oppose rulings
  • CORE and NAACP hadn't perfected methods
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Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56)

  • Content
    • Rosa Parks refuse to give up seat, arrested, fined
    • Montgomery Blacks boycott buses, carpooling
    • Bus companies lose 65% revenue
    • NAACP court case (Browder v Gayle) desegregate buses after boycott fails to
  • Significance
    • show economic power of black people
    • highlight significance of media
    • establish SCLC
    • showed lengths whites would go to to stop desegregation
    • show Supreme Court willing to overrule Plessy v Ferguson
  • MLK
    •  let his church be used as a meeting place to plan
    • establish SCLC (in 1957)
    • his MIA instrumental in guiding boycott
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Little Rock (1957)

  • Content
    • Governor Orval Fauvus use National Gurad to prevent 9 blacks entering a school
    • white mob
    • politically motivated
    • Eisenhower forced to take control- USA face (cold war), use national guard to escort students
    • Faubus closes schools and 4000 blacks and whites seek education elsewhere
    • Cooper v Aaron ruling
  • Significance
    • de jure led to de facto
    • force Presidential action and high level (1000 troops for 9 students)
    • show extent white southern racists would go
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Greensboro sit-ins (1960)

  • Content
    • 4 students sat at white only counter in Woolworth's
    • day 2 = 27 students
    • day 4= 300
    • across 6 states- sit-ins, swim-ins.... all public places (parks...)
    • Woolworth's profits decrease by 1/3 in campaign
  • Significance
    • increased no. of CRM organisations
    • demonstrate speed that campaigns spread
    • significance of the media
    • show economic power of blacks
    • 1961 810 towns desegregate their public places
  • MLK
    • initially no involvement
    • encouraged sit ins and when called joined them
    • was lead rather than lead himself
    • SNCC established
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Freedom Rides (1961)

  • Content
    • travel from W. DC to New Orleans using interstate transport
    • organised by CORE, 6 white and 7 black from CORE and SNCC swap seats
    • planned media attention
    • expect violence- white mob, police with links to KKK, no protection, in Montgomery no medics when battered with baseball bats
    • General Robert Kennedy enforced desegregation of interstate buses
  • Significance
    • marked high point in co-operation of CORE SNCC SCLC
    • showed Kennedy's new administration was sympathetic
  • MLK
    • didn't go to rides as on probation
    • made contact with riders
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The Albany Movement (1961-62)

  • Content
    • Local Police Chief Laurie Pritchett ordered police to stop mobs and give respect and protection to protestors
    • all in order to deny media attention
  • Significance
    • show peaceful protests don't always work
    • led to divisions in organisations
    • in future plan to protest in places more likely to be attacked
  • MLK
    • followed not led
    • arrested but released by Pritchett perhaps to avoid media
    • acknowledged his tactics hadn't worked
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Meredith and the University of Mississippi (1962)

  • Content
    • James Meredith- 1st black student at Uni of Mississippi
    • refused enrolment but Kennedy put pressure on governor to back down
    • Meredith faced mob on campus and couldn't enrol
    • Jennedy send troops to defend him and try to enrol successfully
    • riot broke out- 2 deaths
    • shunned but graduated with degree
  • Significance
    • did graduate 1963
    • presidential action
    • show lengths white mobs would go to
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Civil Rights Act (1957)

  • the act that kick-started the civil rights legislative programme
  • pushed through by Eisenhower
  • aimed to ensure that all African Americans could exercise their right to vote as only 20% of African Americans had registered to vote
  • the final act became a much watered done affair due to the lack of support among the Democrats
  • any person found guilty of obstructing someone’s right to register barely faced the prospect of punishment as a trial by jury in the South meant the accused had to face an all-white jury as only whites could be jury members.
  • Political support and public confidence for the Act had been eroded when Eisenhower publicly admitted that he did not understand parts of it.
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