- Full name - the National Labor Union.
- Founded 1866 by William H. Sylvis
- Camapigned for:
- an 8-hr working day
- currency and banking reform
- the end of convict labour
- a federal labour department
- immigration restrictions
- the cause of working women.
- The sudden death of Sylvis in 1869 and the rise of the Knights of Labor marked the end of the union.
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- Full name - the Colored National Labor Union
- founded 1866, shortly after the National Labor Union's foundation.
- Exemplifies divisions within movement - segregation.
- Declined with the rise of the Knights of Labor, who admitted all workers regardless of colour.
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Knights of Labor
- Founded 1869
- Gained most of its members after 1879 and the ascendancy of Terence V. Powderley, the new leader.
- Aim (of Powderley) was to unite all workers, regardless of skill, gender, race and culture.
- 8hr working day
- equal pay for women
- end to child labour
- Rejected strikes and sought legislation instead, but sometimes felt forced to support strikes
- Haymarket Affair of 1886 ruined their reputation and their support dwindled.
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- 19th century secret society of mainly Irish and Irisch-American miners.
- Aim - better conditions in Pennsylvania mines.
- A series of strikes in the 1870s led to violence.
- They were eventually infiltrated by the Pinkertons and many members were put on sensational trials 1876-78
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International Workers of the World (IWW)- Wobblies
- Formed in 1905.
- mainly Western miners and itinerant workers.
- Membership peaked 1923.
- Protested through violence and sabotage, leading to many arrests.
- Syndicalists - believed in a revolution through the unions.
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- Effectively replaced the KOL after its 1886 foundation.
- Supported the use of both strikes and collective bargaining.
- Claimed to rely on the bargaining power of skilled workers
- Split into the AFL and the CIO 19
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- Full name - Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
- Leader - A. Philip Randolph
- Founded 1925 in secret, since the Pullman Company discouraged unions.
- Initially denounced by Company as a foreign agency.
- Recognised by Pullman Company after the Wagner Act made it the only legitimate union.
- Aimed for better wages, promotion opportunities and conditions for the poorly-treated, mostly black porters.
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- Full name - Congress of Industrial Organisations
- Formed as a splinter union from the AFL 1937
- Concentrated more on unskilled workers, and was more willing to listen to women and minority ethnic groups.
- create more closed shops
- equality of labour
- Resisted by employers.
- The main target of the Taft-Hartley Act (1947) - the federal government thought it was too close to the Communists.
- Merged with the AFL 1955 to form the AFL-CIO.
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- Formed from the AFL and the CIO 1955
- Very, very large
- Able to take advantage of collective bargaining system and negotiate contracts over regulations, as well as provide benefit packages.
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- Full name - Women's Trade Union League.
- Founded 1903.
- Leaders at the time - Rosa Schneidermann and Mary Kenny O'Sullivan.
- Focused on encouraging women to unionise, pressure for the franchise and opposing sweatshop conditions, including a minimum wage and 8hr day.
- Opposed to AFL who saw legislation as aiming to replace union negotiation.
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- Full name: - International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
- founded 1900
- Sudden upsurge in membership after 1909/10 and two huge strikes in New York City known as the 'Uprising of 20,000' and the 'Great Revolt', that the ILGWU was involved in.
- Supported by more wealthy female activists, too.
- Galvanised into further action by the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire of 1911
- Rosa Schneidermann was a prominent member.
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- Full name - The International Brotherhood of Teamsters.
- Formed in 1903
- Connections with the criminal underworld in the 1960s, leading to the disappearance of its president, Jimmy Hoffa.
- Still exists today, covering a wide variety of blue-collar workers.
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- Full name - Coalition of Labor Union Women.
- Founded 1974
- Affiliated to AFL-CIO.
- Main figures- Addie Wyatt and Olga Madar.
- Founded as a response to lack of representation within AFL-CIO.
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- Full name - Professional Air Traffic Controllers' Organisation.
- Founded 1968
- Called a national strike 1981 over wages and working hours.
- Decertified as a result, with all strikers fired and banned from the industry.
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