Citizenship - Justice

Laws etc

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Making Laws

A bill is a rough draft of a law

1) Government makes a Bill

2) The First Reading - House of Commons

3) The Second Reading - The Bill is debated and voted on in the House of Commons. If the Bill is voted against then it wont get to the next stage

4) Committee Stage - Each part of the Bill is voted on by MPs and they make changes to parts of it.

5) Report Stage and Third Reading

This then happens all over again in the House of Lords

The Bill will only become a law when both house agree.

6) The Queen 'signs off' the Bill and it becomes a law

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Civil Law

Civil Law

  • Tries to solve disputes between individuals, businesses or organisations
  • E.g. someones right hasnt been allowed
  • Dealt with by county, high courts and sometimes magistrates.
  • Judge
  • Pay for the damage or compensation

Criminal Law

  • Attempts to maintain law and order
  • Theft, murder, vandalism, drink driving
  • Fined, probation, prison
  • Cases are started by the police through the CPS
  • In a crown court (Jury(12)) or magistrates court ( Magistrates)

CPS means Crown Prosecution Service

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The Police and the CPS

Legal Support

  • The Citizens' Advice Bureau (CAB) - Free legal advice to anyone.
  • Solicitors - provide expensive legal help and advice. Represent you in court.
  • Trade Unions - provide legal support especially for work-related legal problems like unfair sacking

Roles of the Police

  • Patrol areas on foot or in police cars
  • Protect and keep public and community safe
  • Prevent danger occuring
  • Stop and Search with suspicion.

When arrested you should:

  • Be told why you have been arrested
  • Treated with respect
  • Be allowed a solicitor
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European Union


  • Travel freely between countries in the EU
  • Vote and stand in European elections
  • Live, Study, Work and Retire anywhere in the EU
  • Freedom and security and justice for all


  • Puts businesses out of business because they dont meet EU rules
  • Measurements all have to be metric, no longer imperial.
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