Citizenship

HideShow resource information

introducing citizenship:

  • became implict fro long period in social and public policy 

1980s it was revived because: 

  • 'right' wanted to displace state with civil society - liberty and obligations 
  • 'left' wanted to combate primacy of the market - equality and entitlements. 
  • so citizenship has become common solution BUT there are different conceptions of it. 
  • has to be democratic, monarchies etc cannot have citizens. 

Bellamy (2008) says it contains: 

  • Memberships
  • Right
  • Participation 
  • State must garuntee rights and obligations but not become to directive, state and civil societ in balance. 
1 of 19

Rights:

Natural - divine or by virtue of our humanness. 

or 

Contructed - product of out social interactions and insititutions (Dworkin, 1977) 

propities of rights: 

  • Universal
  • Inalienable
  • imply autonomy
  • protective
  • ensure public authorities allocate public goods fairly
  • must be enforceable
  • underpinned by justice claims
  • imply responsibilitiy for all
  • can be foundational of 'second level' 
2 of 19

Rights:

Natural - divine or by virtue of our humanness. 

or 

Contructed - product of out social interactions and insititutions (Dworkin, 1977) 

propities of rights: 

  • Universal
  • Inalienable
  • imply autonomy
  • protective
  • ensure public authorities allocate public goods fairly
  • must be enforceable
  • underpinned by justice claims
  • imply responsibilitiy for all
  • can be foundational of 'second level' 
3 of 19

T.H Marshal (1950) resilient citizenship framework

  • Saw the there was a 'creative tension' between: 
  • Civil rights - markets - inequalities 
  • social rights - welfare state - equality 
  • Some (Fitzpatrick, 2001) consider political rights broadly in the social camp, but arguably political rights provide the means for struggle between oppossing forces. 
  • Marchal referred to this as a 'Hyphenated society' within it citizenship reached it conclusion. 
  • equal status. 
4 of 19

Rights: Problems?

  • over extended notion of civil rights 
  • why no reference to economic rights 
  • ahistorical - chronology doesnt quite work 
  • gendered and 'racilaised' 
  • ignored european human rights 
5 of 19

Responsibilities:

New Right challenged social rights because of the implication for civil rights. 

  • So began the shift towards responsibilities: 
  • social rights deped on the rise of welfare state not universal 
  • they are not truely enforceable 
  • they have exlipsed obligations 
  • obligation have been the key source of attack and even new labour adopted this. 

Some majoy deficiencies to this account: 

  • wwelfare state based on duties too
  • the new right individualism ignores: 
  • - interdependence 
  • - power imablances 
6 of 19

Theoretical champions:

liberalism (social and economic)

based on 2 premises: 

1) individuals choose their lives and lifestules - good life is ours to select 

2) our choices do not define us our defining teature is our ability to choose. 

Communitarians: 

1) invidiuals choice about lives and liftestule are constrained by community boundaries and contexts - the good life contriutes to the common good.

2) our choices DO define us and our identities are shaped by the community 

7 of 19

Theoretical champions:

liberalism (social and economic)

based on 2 premises: 

1) individuals choose their lives and lifestules - good life is ours to select 

2) our choices do not define us our defining teature is our ability to choose. 

Communitarians: 

1) invidiuals choice about lives and liftestule are constrained by community boundaries and contexts - the good life contriutes to the common good.

2) our choices DO define us and our identities are shaped by the community 

8 of 19

continued...

  • whether we are liberals or communitarians drives out understanding of citizenship: 

1) Passic citizenship

2) Active citizenship 

  • state as a neutral or committed - education must either provide students with options or induct them into the community.

Liberals empahsis rights (but of what?) 

communitarins emphasise duties 

9 of 19

continued...

  • whether we are liberals or communitarians drives out understanding of citizenship: 

1) Passic citizenship

2) Active citizenship 

  • state as a neutral or committed - education must either provide students with options or induct them into the community.

Liberals empahsis rights (but of what?) 

communitarins emphasise duties 

10 of 19

Competing ideas:

we can see 2 broad possibilities in terms of reciprocities:

1) unablance: 

  • (A) empahsis on rights has 2 possbilities:
  • needs are prioritised by the liberal left
  • liberal right prioritied entitlements 
  • (B) emphasis on duties also 2 possibilities: 
  • need priority of communitarian left 
  • desert priority of communitarian right 

2) Blanaced reciprocity: 

  • specific reciprocity - at the level of an act and this can be egalitarian, market-based or about community.
  • Generalised reciprocity - i.e care tax (loose connections between people) 
11 of 19

Coercion:

  • what coercion is needed to make sure people do their duty 
  • workfare - is it right to make people work for benefits? 
12 of 19

Coercion:

  • what coercion is needed to make sure people do their duty 
  • workfare - is it right to make people work for benefits? 
13 of 19

Competing ideals:

1) liberal left say minimum income is a basic right so no additional conditiona are accepted 

2) communitarian left may think some mutuality requires such conditions 

3) liberal right may see admin costs as prohibitive and many will dismiss state benefits all togehter.

4) communitarian right will see it as a matter of desert, demonstrating that you deserve help 

14 of 19

inclusion / exclusion:

liberals (left and right) will suggest either market or socialist society will universalise citizenship Communitarian (left and right) will say that it SHOULD be exclusive : UKIP stance on economic growth

15 of 19

inclusion / exclusion:

liberals (left and right) will suggest either market or socialist society will universalise citizenship Communitarian (left and right) will say that it SHOULD be exclusive : UKIP stance on economic growth

16 of 19

....

  • equal citizens - we are all the same regardless of age, gender , ethnicity 
  • differnet citizens - we have relevant differences that need to be achnowledges 
  • both vision have problems - can a middle way be conceived? 
17 of 19

New (or different) direction:

Gender citizenship:

Fraser (1997)

  • universal breadwinner 
  • care-giver parity 
  • uinversal care-giver 

Cultural citizenship: 

  • group rights determined by thinictiy (Kymlicka 1995) 

global citizenship: 

  • can global citizens be constructed 

econlogical citizenship - does citizenship promote human life

18 of 19

New (or different) direction:

Gender citizenship:

Fraser (1997)

  • universal breadwinner 
  • care-giver parity 
  • uinversal care-giver 

Cultural citizenship: 

  • group rights determined by thinictiy (Kymlicka 1995) 

global citizenship: 

  • can global citizens be constructed 

econlogical citizenship - does citizenship promote human life

19 of 19

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all sociology resources »