Cicero

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chapter 24

 P. Clodius cum statuisset omni scelere in praetura vexare rem publicam, videretque ita tracta esse comitia anno superiore, ut non multos mensis praeturam gerere posset,—qui non honoris gradum spectaret, ut ceteri, sed et L. Paulum conlegam effugere vellet, singulari virtute civem, et annum integrum ad dilacerandam rem publicam quaereret,—subito reliquit annum suum, seseque in annum proximum transtulit: non (ut fit) religione aliqua, sed ut haberet, quod ipse dicebat, ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam, plenum annum atque integrum.

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Chapter 24 notes

Omni = empahtic and hyperbolic

scelere = perjorative, linking him with crime. Also contrasts him with "a man of singular virtue" and implies he is unlike others in "ut fit" and ut ceteri (he is unorthodox: thinks he is above the rules)

Ad dilacerandum and ad evertendam are perjorative. In both the verb and object are inverted to show Clodius' destructive nature

Subito reliquit = clodius acting closely. There is also chiasmus in "subito reliquit...transtulit" and this plus leaving the second annum after proxumum implied adds to the fast paced atmosphere

Plenum annum atque integrum = shows Clodius' selfishness to want this. Pleonasm accentuates his dedication to the idea

Clodius' plans described using violent language: ad dilacerandam rem republican / adevertendam rem republicam / vexare rem repiblicam. Hvaing it repeated 3 times gives impression it is under threat. He is characterised with hyperbole making it almost  a caricature - no good qualities at all.

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Chapter 25

Occurrebat ei mancam ac debilem praeturam futuram suam consule Milone: eum porro summo consensu populi Romani consulem fieri videbat. Contulit se ad eius competitores, sed ita, totam ut petitionem ipse solus etiam invitis illis gubernaret, tota ut comitia suis, ut dictitabat, umeris sustineret. Convocabat tribus, se interponebat, Collinam novam dilectu perditissimorum civium conscribebat. Quanto ille plura miscebat, tanto hic magis in dies convalescebat. Ubi vidit homo ad omne facinus paratissimus fortissimum virum, inimicissimum suum, certissimum consulem, idque intellexit non solum sermonibus, sed etiam suffragiis populi Romani saepe esse declaratum, palam agere coepit, et aperte dicere occidendum Milonem

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Chapter25 notes

Mancam ac debilem = tautology (repetitive use of words or phrases which have similar meanings to one another) as well as pleonasm

Summo = superlative - shows extent of Milo's popularity w public

Videbat. Contulit = placed next to each other to show Clodius acting with speed "as soon as he saw the popularity he took himself off to his competitors"

totam...tota (polyptoton - repetition but different) / Ipse solus & suis / umeris sustineret (metaphor of strength) / gubernaret (often used to mean steering a ship) = give picture of Clodius in control. A threat.

convocabat..interponebat...conscribat = tricolon  of verbs in asyndeton - Clodius' speed

negative hyperbole in perditissimoroum (clod's chosen citizens) and paratissimus (prepared for any crime) This contrasts with Milo's description which is tricolon superlatives "fortissimum, inimicissimum, certissimum".   Non solum...sed etiam = emphasises certainty of Milo being consul. plura ...magis in dies is emphatic/hyperbole and pleonasm. palam & aperte = pleonasm, showing how shocking clodius' public declarations are: he has no shame

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Chapter 26

Servos agrestis et barbaros, quibus silvas publicas depopulatus erat Etruriamque vexarat, ex Apennino deduxerat, quos videbatis. Res erat minime obscura. Etenim palam dictitabat consulatum Miloni eripi non posse, vitam posse. Significavit hoc saepe in senatu, dixit in contione. Quin etiam M. Favonio, fortissimo viro, quaerenti ex eo qua spe fureret Milone vivo, respondit triduo illum aut summum quadriduo esse periturum: quam vocem eius ad hunc M. Catonem statim Favonius detulit.

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Chapter 26 notes

Agrestis et barbaros = pleonasm showing Clodius' followers are agressive and uncivilised. we get sense of prejudice

depopulatus erat and vexerat are perjorative, stressing his violent nature.

quos videbamus = apostrophe - involves the audience

minime obscura and palam is pleonasm (the use of more words than are necessary to convey meaning ) showing clodius' claims are shamelessly public

Consulatum miloni eripi non posse, vitam posse = simple sentence, repetion - is violent and agressive and emphasises openness / clearness of  the action toClodius

fueret is exaggeration, implying he was mad not just angry

dictitatbat is frequentative + Saepe - IE Clodius didn't only say this once - is emphatic due to positioning - bounces off senatu.

Fortissimo virro = superlative in contrast to Codius

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Chapter 27

Interim cum sciret Clodius—neque enim erat difficile scire—iter sollemne, legitimum, necessarium ante diem xiii. Kalendas Februarias Miloni esse Lanuvium ad flaminem prodendum, [quod erat dictator Lanuvi Milo,] Roma subito ipse profectus pridie est, ut ante suum fundum, quod re intellectum est, Miloni insidias conlocaret. Atque ita profectus est, ut contionem turbulentam, in qua eius furor desideratus est, [quae illo ipso die habita est,] relinqueret, quam nisi obire facinoris locum tempusque voluisset, numquam reliquisset

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Chapter 27 notes

Sciret = postioning of verb highlights that clodius knew

Neque enim erat id difficile scire - shows clod's thinking to be transparent, implies he's somewhat stupid

sollemne, legitimum, necessarium = tricolon ( of reasons why milo had to make legitimate journey). "ad flaminem prodendum" makes Milo seem reverent/decent since it is a religious reason.

ipse profectus pridie est = alliteration of p / separation of profectus/est highlight clodius' hurry. "insidias" characterises Clodius as sneaky/evil

turbulentam = characterises the crown clodius usually hangs around with as violent and unpredictable

furor - he is known for madness - yay others 'miss it'. facinoris is a violent word - overall a negative description

locum tempusque - makes the crime seem premeditated

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chapter 28

Milo autem cum in senatu fuisset eo die, quoad senatus est dimissus, domum venit; calceos et vestimenta mutavit; paulisper, dum se uxor (ut fit) comparat, commoratus est; dein profectus id temporis cum iam Clodius, si quidem eo die Romani venturus erat, redire potuisset. Ob viam fit ei Clodius, expeditus, in equo, nulla raeda, nullis impedimentis; nullis Graecis comitibus, ut solebat; sine uxore, quod numquam fere: cum hic insidiator, qui iter illud ad caedem faciendam apparasset, cum uxore veheretur in raeda, paenulatus, magno et impedito et muliebri ac delicato ancillarum puerorumque comitatu.

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Chapter 28 notes

domum venit; calceos et vestimenta mutavit... commoratus est = tricolon of domestic tasks = Milo is not suspicious but going aout his business

si qiudem is sarcastic, as is hic insidiator and apparasset helps clodius distance himself from the allegations of intended murder on milo's part

in equo, nulla raeda, nullis impedimentis...... = asyndeton showing clodius travelling very lightly. it is made more suspicious by "quod numquam fere". The last point is sine uxore whcih directly contrasts with first milo descriptor cum uxore

cum uxore vehereture in raeda, paenulatus.... = tricolon - contrasts to the unencumbered clodius

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