1.1: Fear of Communism and social unrest
- Unpopularly encouraged British military intervention to aid the Whites in the Russian Civil War
- Objected 1920 Anglo-Soviet Trade Treaty.
- Successfully threatened to resign over 1922 proposal to officially recognise the Soviet State.
- UK Trade Union membership doubled to 8 million during WW1.
- Feared the spread of Communism, especially to Germany.
- Feared a revolution in Britain.
- Zinoviev letter in Daily Mail (later proved to be fake) highlighted a link between the Labour Party and Russian Communists.
- Called Communism a "cancer" and "foul baboonery".
- Horrified by 1918 murder of Russian Royal family as he feared losing his own privileged status and viewed Communism to be brutal.
- Urged colleagues to use force against 1919 coal strikers.
- Approved of the use of gas in Iraq.
- Proposed use of force against unrest in Ireland.
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1.2: Chancellor of the Exchequer/Return to Gold
- Appointed by Baldwin to be Chancellor in 1924.
- Was 2nd choice behind Chamberlain.
- Gold Standard ensured money supply and stability but was set too high at pre-war levels, resulting in expensive exports and raised interest rates.
- A Labour-appointed committee had supported his return to Gold.
- Keynes: "The Economic Consequences of Mr Churchill" 1925.
- Working class believed only socialism could solve unemployment.
- Extended the welfare state and reduced military spending, for example refusing to allow a naval base in Singapore (stated there would be "no war with Japan" in his lifetime).
- Tried to reduce government spending and decreased income tax.
- Permanently renewed the 10 Year Rule in 1928.
- Became a competent Chancellor.
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1.3: General Strike
- Supported initial subsidy but coal industry was inefficient.
- Viewed the Daily Mail's refusal to print an anti-strike article as a threat to freedom of speech.
- Saw the General Strike as a threat to democracy despite sympathising with the miners.
- The strike lasted 10 days (3rd - 13th May 1926).
- Editor of the British Gazette where he supported the use of armed forces against the strike.
- Denied the New Statesman's accusations that he said "a little bloodletting" wouldn't go amiss.
- Baldwin's scapegoat; Baldwin knew Churchill would be an extremist, allowing himself to look like a calm negotiator.
- Signed the 1927 Trade Disputes Act which put a ban on general strikes.
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1.4: Attempts at Conciliation
- Supported the payment of a subsidy to the coal miners whilst the industry faced investigations.
- Sympathised with the coal miners and tried to compromise over their continued strike.
- Persuaded the mine owners to negotiate wage cuts on a national level - this is what the workers had wanted.
- Aimed to impose a settlement so that miners could get back to work.
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1.5: Reasons for wilderness years
- Criticised for his budgets.
- 1929 Labour election victory, Labour-led government until 1935.
- Gold Standard was abandoned in 1931.
- Wrote "My Early Life" in 1930 and went on a speaking tour of the US.
- Strongly opposed Indian Independence, formed the India Defence League, and so was viewed as out-dated and extremist especially upon describing Gandhi as a "half naked fakir".
- Seen as trying to challenge Baldwin after his 1931 resignation from the Shadow Cabinet.
- Seen as war-mongering when he urged rearmament following Hitler's appointment as Chancellor in 1933.
- Did not press for an armed response in 1936 when Hitler broke the Treaty of Versailles by remilitarising the Rhineland.
- 1937: "I will not pretend that if I had to choose between communism and Nazism I would choose communism".
- Fooled by Henlein that Hitler had peaceful intentions in 1938.
- Criticised appeasement in the Munich conference of 1938, calling it "peace with dishonour", then faced a vote of no confidence in his own constituency.
- Sat on the Air Defence Research Committee in 1935.
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1.6: 1936 Abdication Crisis
- Wallis Simpson was undergoing her second divorce whilst in a relationship with Edward VIII.
- Edward VIII and Churchill had been friends since 1911, as Churchill helped Edward to draft his speeches.
- Churchill wanted the issue to be made public in order for the King to gain support but this was very unpopular and he was shouted out of the Commons.
- He was accused by some of trying to overthrow Baldwin and form a King's Party.
- Resulted in a great dislike of Churchill by the new monarch, George VI.
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