Christianity 1A-B

  • Created by: LivGrace
  • Created on: 28-03-19 09:54

Birth Stories

Found in Luke and Matthew Gospels

  • Matthew features the Magi 
  • Luke tells the story of Mary and Joseph having to travel because of a census
  • Luke's story includes visiting Shepherds
  • King Harold ordered the killing of the baby boys in Matthew's gospel
  • Matthew traces Jesus' family tree through to Abraham
  • Luke seems to tell the story of Jesus' birth through Mary's perspective

Raymond. E. Brown (1928-1998)

  • Roman Catholic New Testament Scholar
  • "We should be careful when harmonizing the stories because we miss the theological point that each evangelist was trying to make"
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Birth Stories-Differences

  • Matthew- Un-named Angel appears to Joseph
  • Luke- Angel Gabriel appears to Mary
  • Matthew- Joseph marries Mary
  • Luke- Joseph engaged to mary.
  • Luke- Mary visitis Elizabeth
  • Luke- Birth of John the Baptist
  • Matthew- The wise men
  • Luke- The shepherds
  • Matthew- Herod- Slaughter of the infants
  • Luke- Temple- Presentation of Christ in the temple
  • Matthew- Flight to Egypt. Return to Nazareth from Egypt
  • Luke- Return to Nazareth from Jeresalem
  • Matthew- Jesus born in 'Days of Herod'
  • Luke- 'When Quirninus was Govenor of Syria'
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Birth Stories- Similarities

  • Jeus was born in Bethlehem when Herod was king of Judah
  • Mothers name was Mary
  • Mary was betrothed to Joseph
  • Jesus concieved of Holy Spirit
  • Mary was a virgin
  • People travelled to visit newborn baby
  • Jesus was the fulfilment of the Old Testament prophet
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Substantial Presence/ Kenotic Model

  • Human but divine is still there
  • God is substantially present in Jesus
  • Jesus had all of the attributes of God at Birth 
  • Gnostic writings suggested that the material world was evil
  • Jesus appears fully protected
  • Becoming human loses some divine features
  • Kenotic- Greek word for emptying
  • The son voluntarily emptied himself of some of his attributes just prior to the incarnation.
  • Puts accent on Jesus' humanity

Redaction Critiscim- The theory that New Testament writers altered existing material about Jesus to suit their own agenda (Norman Perrin is a redaction critic)

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God comes to earth in Human form


  • God can connect with his people
  • Creates a personal relationship
  • Easier to pray when they are there in front of you


  • How can he be omniscient when he is on earth?
  • Can he be relatable in the form he has taken?
  • Middle age man from Palestine cannot connect with teenage girl
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Plato- Metaphysical- Plato thought the metaphysical world was more superior than the physical world

Gnostics- Physical things are bad, disagree with the incarnation because don't believe God can be physical

Arian Controversy- Questioned if God could be a person. Jesus is an inferior copy of God

Nicene Creed- Were against Arius (Arian Controversy), Council of Nicea make the bible

Chalcedon Creed- "Truly God and Truly Man"

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The idea that a living being comes back to life after death in a re-created, perfect, human body

Ezechial 37: The Valley of the dry bones

Gosepels= Resurrection is a teaching in all 4 gospels

St.Paul- 1 Corinthians 15

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Rudolph Bultmann

  • Aimed to prove that the narratives of the life oj jesus were offering theology in story form and that the events didn't actually take place in history
  • Jesus' death and burial is historial but his resurrection and rebirth is historic
  • The spiritual significance of the resurrection was that is happened to jesus disciples and jesus himself
  • Bultmann's 'final judgement' is an event that takes place in each person's heart as they respond to God
  • Christ is risen not in spite of his death, but he is risen precisey as the crucified one who died
  • Bultmann sharply highlights the eschatological character of the resurrection- part of theology concerned with his death, judgement and the final destiny of the soul and of human kind.
  • Bultmann seeks to develop a theology of resurrection which does justice to the primitive christian proclomation
  • We need to demyth the bible
  • Jesus' crucifixion is the most important part of Jesus' life
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N.T Wright

Countered Theories/ Wrights responce

1) Jesus survived the crucifixtion- Roman Soldiers knew what they were doing

2) The Tomb was empty, but nothing else happened- The disciples would have assumed that Jesus' body had been stolen

3) The Disciples had a vision of Jesus- Doesn't claim that the departed person had been raised from the dead

  • No one expected the messiah to rise from the dead so why would they make it up
  • If someone doesnt have a religious world view they aren't going to believe the resurrection
  • If the messiah died then you should move on and find a new one but the Chritstians carried on and many say that even though jesus died on the cross he is still the messiah
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Resurrection- Bible

John 20-21

  • Mary Magdalene visits the tomb to find Jesus gone.Mistakes Jesus for a gardener. Disciples do not recognise Jesus and Thomas touches his wounds. 
  • Disciples are fishing, do not recognise Jesus.  Tells them to fish on the otherside of their boat and then they catch lots of fish. realise it is jesus

1 Corinthians 15

  • St. Paul talks about how Jesus died on the cross and then rose again and helped others before he then went to heaven
  • Talks about how Jesus will hand over the kingdom to God
  • Talks about how the resurrected body is imperishable, glorified, powerful and spiritual

Matthew 10:28

  • "Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul, rather be afraid of the one who can destory both the body and soul in hell"

Philippians 1:21:24

  • To live is christ and to die is gain
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