Famine: 20-40million dead 1958-61 - strain on resources such as water and electricity
Mao had wanted a large army and workforce to make China more powerful, so had encouraged lots of babies to be born.
Free schools and healthcare
Interest free loans
Fines 4x annual wage
Forced or pressured to abort
- rural with first child a girl
- disabled children
- only child yourself
- ethnic minorities
Only 36% have to follow
400 mn less children born
lower IM, higher LE
4-2-1 problem: less people work = less cheap labour china relys on
gender imbalance 120:100 girls nationwide
30-40mn men without a wife in the future = more crime.
little emporer syndrome - no relatives their own age
ageing population = less working = less tx revenue + more spending on elderly care. by 2050, 30% over 60
human rights abuses?