- China has the worlds largest population at about 1.3 billion, this equates to 25% of the worlds population.
- Yet China is only 9% of the worlds land area.
- And only 6% of the worlds agricultural land.
- The birth rate is 17 per 1000.
- The death rate is 7 per 1000.
- So a natural increase of 10 per 1000.
- China is the only country which has had to cap population growth as strictly as this.
- The policy was introduced in 1979 after 10 years of trying to persuade people to have less children with the 'Long, late and few' argument.
- The policy will stay in place indefinitely, but has been modified so that two children are allowed if:
- The parents are farmers and their first child was a girl.
- The first child is disabled.
- Both parents were only children themselves.
- Or the parents are from an ethnic minority.
- Free contraceptives to all.
- Free family planning advice - from the granny police)
- Forced sterilisation for those with more than one child.
- Free education and healthcare for the first child only, any others have to be paid for.
- Substantial fines for having more than one child.
- Forced abortions for some people.
- People are encouraged to tell on neighbours who are planning on having another child.
- 10% pay rise for those with just one child.
- Priority over jobs and housing for parents of just one child.
- The state can control when a couple can marry and start a family.
- The legal age to marry is 20 for females and 22 for males, which has decreased from when the policy was first put in place.
- People with more than one child are commonly discriminated.
- Longer maternity leave is granted for the first child.
- The policy has now become more friendly with less forced sterilisations and abortions, as this is replaced by better education on family size and planning.
Positive Impacts and Advantages:
- The population growth is slowing down in towns. The natural increase has gone from 19% to 10%.
- 250 million births have been prevented.
- It has helped China's economy grow more rapidly.
Advantages of Lower Birth Rates:
- Women have more rights and are more frequently becoming employed.
- The standard of living has increased.
- Due to migration to cities, there is more farming in rural areas so less food is imported.
- More and better jobs are available, so higher salaries.
- Improved healthcare means; lower infant mortality and longer life expectancy.
- Better education for all so higher literacy rates.
- There is less strain on resources.
- It is hard to control birth rates in the countryside.
- Female infanticide as the males carry on the family name, inherit from the parents and look after them when they become older.
- 114 boys to every 100 girls. There are 60 million more boys than girls.
- Young men struggle to find wives.
- Could lead to an ageing population.
- Little Emperor Effect as the child is spoilt.
- When they are older they will have to support 4 grandparents and 2 parents. The 4 2 1 problem.
- Internationally seen as a breach of human rights.
- Population still set to double in the next 100 years.