China Case Study Cards for OCR June 2012 GCSE Exam

Case study revision cards for China's One Child Policy

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  • China has the worlds largest population at about 1.3 billion, this equates to 25% of the worlds population.
  • Yet China is only 9% of the worlds land area.
  • And only 6% of the worlds agricultural land.
  • The birth rate is 17 per 1000.
  • The death rate is 7 per 1000.
  • So a natural increase of 10 per 1000.
  • China is the only country which has had to cap population growth as strictly as this.
  • The policy was introduced in 1979 after 10 years of trying to persuade people to have less children with the 'Long, late and few'  argument.
  • The policy will stay in place indefinitely, but has been modified so that two children are allowed if:

   - The parents are farmers and their first child was a girl.
   - The first child is disabled.
   - Both parents were only children themselves.
   - Or the parents are from an ethnic minority.

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Persuasion Techniques:

  • Free contraceptives to all.
  • Free family planning advice - from the granny police)
  • Forced sterilisation for those with more than one child.
  • Free education and healthcare for the first child only, any others have to be paid for.
  • Substantial fines for having more than one child.
  • Forced abortions for some people.
  • People are encouraged to tell on neighbours who are planning on having another child.
  • 10% pay rise for those with just one child.
  • Priority over jobs and housing for parents of just one child.
  • The state can control when a couple can marry and start a family.
  • The legal age to marry is 20 for females and 22 for males, which has decreased from when the policy was first put in place.
  • People with more than one child are commonly discriminated.
  • Longer maternity leave is granted for the first child.
  • The policy has now become more friendly with less forced sterilisations and abortions, as this is replaced by better education on family size and planning.
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Positive Impacts and Advantages:

Positive Impacts:

  • The population growth is slowing down in towns. The natural increase has gone from 19% to 10%.
  • 250 million births have been prevented.
  • It has helped China's economy grow more rapidly.

Advantages of Lower Birth Rates:

  • Women have more rights and are more frequently becoming employed.
  • The standard of living has increased.
  • Due to migration to cities, there is more farming in rural areas so less food is imported.
  • More and better jobs are available, so higher salaries.
  • Improved healthcare means; lower infant mortality and longer life expectancy.
  • Better education for all so higher literacy rates.
  • There is less strain on resources.
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  • It is hard to control birth rates in the countryside. 
  • Female infanticide as the males carry on the family name, inherit from the parents and look after them when they become older.
  • 114 boys to every 100 girls. There are 60 million more boys than girls.
  • Young men struggle to find wives.
  • Could lead to an ageing population.
  • Little Emperor Effect as the child is spoilt.
  • When they are older they will have to support 4 grandparents and 2 parents. The 4 2 1 problem.
  • Internationally seen as a breach of human rights.
  • Population still set to double in the next 100 years.
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