- Created by: HarryAustin
- Created on: 18-04-18 13:27
China in 1949
China Civil War 1946-49
- CCP vs. GMD
- Mao Zedong vs. Chiang Kai-Shek
- United during 1937-45
- Communists Win
China in 1949
- 80% Peasants in Rural Areas
- Refugees clogged transport
- Nationalists stripped China of riches and bureacrats
- No stable of unified currency, Hyperinflation
- CCP less popular in cities than rural areas
- Nationalists continued to be a threat in Taiwan
China's Economy 1949
- Badly damaged from War, Nationalists had sabotaged industry
- USSR controlled Manchuria in NE of China, taking equipment and resources
- 1949 output 44% lower than 1937
- Idealogical problem, Marxism required a Industrial Revolution 5% worked in Industry :(
- Promised Land reform (1950) had peasants support 80% of Population
- Agricultural tools in short supply, human waste as fertilizer leading to disease spread
- Civil war caused farmers to abandon farms, leaing farm land unattended.
- Food production at a subsistence level, famine in some areas
- Half of railway had been destroyed, transport system ruined after Civil War
- Hankour 2nd largest port in china wrecked
- Chaing Kai-Shek fled to Taiwan, strong allies with the US
The New Power Structure
- CCP co-ordinated govt, grew to 5.8mil by 1950
- "Peoples democratic dictatorship", intro. democratic centralism, representives but no voting
- CCP leaders given key roles in govt. e.g. Peng Duhai, leader of PLA & Minister of Defence
- Cadres helped run schools & legal system monitored by PLA
- September 1949, CCP organise Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference, CPPCC created the Common Programme a temporary constitution
- Emphasised leading role of CCP & gave powers to PLA, CPPCC did as told by Politburo led by Mao, Zhou Enlai and Liu Shaoqi
- CCP needed bureaucrats to help establish a centrallyplanned economy, state officials rose from 720,000 to 7.9million by 1959.
The PLA, "Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun"
- Played a key role in spreading communist influence, attacked Xinjiang and Tibet and remainding GMD. Over 100,00 enemies killed
- Rebuilt lots of chinas infrastructure
- Learn from the PLA, seen as rolemodels especially after the Korean War
Defeating the CCPs opponents
The Campaign to supress counter-reolutionaries March 1950- Prevented Nationalist sympathisers, Campaign extended by Korean War.
- 3 Anti's movement: 1951, clean-up throughout the party, targets: corruption, waste and obstructionist bureucracy
- allowed purging of GMD 4mil officials investigated, 1 mil executed or exiled
- Struggle meetings, called off after 6 weeks, encouraged mass mobilisation
- 5 Anti's movement: 1952, clean-up of industry, targets: bribery, fraud, tax evasion etc.
- bourgeoisie and private buisness owners targeted, 450,000 buisnessmen purged
- Anti movements also led to 200,000 suicides
Reunification Campaigns (Tibet- Buddhist, Guangdong, Xinjiang- Muslim)
- Tibet October 1950, 60,000 killed, 17 point agreement forced Tibet to join PRC
- Xinjiang by March 1950 PLA had cleared, created a Militia
- Guangdong, 28,000 executed.
- Vast network of labour camps
- "reform through labour"
- By 1955, more than 1.3 million people undergoing forced labour
- Intimidated and terrorised population
- Conditions were poor
- brainwashed with communism
The Hundred Flowers Campaign 1957
Mao encouraged criticism of party by intellectuals why:
- Asking Intellectals for help: genuie attempt for educated intellectuals to come forward & help
- Rectification of the Party: feared the pary had become to bureacratic
- Removal of Mao's enemies: hoped for criticism of more conservative communists
- Internatinal concerns: Feb 1956 K. made secret speech denouncing stalins personality cult, making Mao nervouce, wanted to prove he was not a dictator through debate
- Over-confidence: Mao feeling optimistic, early PRC had been successful, expecting endorsment
Instead the party was criticied on 2 May 1956, Mao then admitted of mistakes and how 800,000 had been killed and that violence was finished. June declared there were 'poisonous weed amongst the fragrant flowers'.
- Anti-Rightist Campaign: right-wingers had abused their freedoms between 400,000 and 700,000 intellectuals were purged and sent to Laogai's.
25th June 1950- 27th July 1953
North Korea invaded capitalist South Korea. Mao took military action against UN forces aiding SK, ending in Standstill and a ceasefire.
- Roles in enhancing CCP control: Enhanced power of CCP, Mao was able to prove Stalin he was a worth ally (International Prestige)
- War provided excuse to lock up non-communist enemies, denounced as spies or capitalist sympathisers 800K counter-revolutionaries and 135k govt official executions
- War gave the regime excuse to enforce conscription, raise taxes & force farmers to give grain
- Resist America, Aid Korea- Encouraged workers to donate wages, shared national pride
- Mao Viewed as a Heroic leader
- Human cost: 400K/3Mil Chinese Killed, Ex-nationalist & Buisnessmen forced to leave
- Financial cost: 30$ Billion
- Mao lost his son 'In a revolution you always pay a price