chilO+E the Influence of Childhood and/or Adolescent Experiences on Adult Relationships

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  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 12-05-16 15:06

AO1 influence of Childhood and/or Adolescent Exper

Theory 1: Parent-Child Relationships:

  • Bowlbys attmnt= evolutionary baby survival - kid Rs set scene for Adult Rs
  • Monotropy/Continuity Hypothesis/Maternal dep Hypoth/Internal Working Model - primary Monotropy R = template for future Rs -
  • IWM guides adult R beh - secure kid -> +ve IWM - PAF's sensitive emot. care 
  • insecure av.: IWM -> thinks its unworthy - PAF reacted -vely in sensitive period
  • Attmnt/CG/sex. - Shaver et al - romantic love = integration of 3 beh systems from childhood 1- attmnt - bowlbys IWM - Rs = cont. of attmnt styles, 2- caregiving - knowledge of how to give care - modelled by PAF, 3-sexuality - related to attmnt - insec. av - sex w/o love is gd
  • phys abuse - incr dep/anger/anx, Fisler- abused kids suffered in attmnt fomation - disorganised/regulating emotns - key for R formation + maintenance

Theory 2

  • childhood Rs - Nangle - kids friendships = training - affection/sense of allegiance/intimacy/ secret-sharing  - promotes feeling trust/accept/understanding - vital for later Rs
  • adolescent Rs attmnt = parents -> peers - achieves separation + shift of interpersonal energy to romantic Rs + allow teen to gain closeness + phys intimacy
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AO2

  • Theory 1: - ++ Fraley - metanalysis - found correlations between 0.10-0.50 for early attmnt + later Rs - low correlat could be due to instability of insecure-anxious BUT - correlat
  • -- stability of attachment types = questionable - AT could be determined by current R - Kirkpatrick + Hazan - R break-ups = associates w/ shift in AT = secure -> insecure so direction of R between AT + Rs = still unclear - no causal concl. SO can't defo conclude childhood experiences dictate R formation
  • ++ Simpson et al - ongoing 25yr longitudinal study - 78ps reported on in infancy by PCGs, Childhood + peer interaction by teachers, self report of friendships @ 16 + partners' R exp in adulthood - found emotion expression in RRs related to AT experiences in childhood i.e securely attached infant --> socially competent child -> socially close to peers @ 16 -> emotionally expressive + attached in adult Rs BUT self report data BUT good hist val
  • Theory 2:- ++ Richard+Schneider - girls have > intimate friendships than boys  - girls > likely to report care/security in Rs w/ other girls SO child peer exp. influence Rs
  • -- Erwin - whilst boys Rs = > competitive due to emphasis of play act. whilst girls = > encouraged w/ sharing/co-op acts - many similarities in sex diffs = overlooked 
  • -- Hayie - in adolescents deviance incr by 35% in romantic Rs - deviance isn't desirable quality for future Rs
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AO3

  • Methodological - much self-report research + ETHICs - research into abuse = socially sensitive - consider PROTECTION FROM PSYCH HARM - e.g Qus about traumatic experiences may bring back challenging/distressing memories 
  • Determinism - research commonly implies childhood/adolescent experiences have a 'Fixed-effect' on adult Rs - implies insecurely attached = doomed to have failed Rs. Conflicting research shows this isn't the case - many real-life e.g where insecurely attached ppl have normal + healthy adult Rs
  • Cultural Bias - most research done in western, individualist cultures - collectivist cultures' parenting/marriage practices are V different - Therefore impact of Childhood experiences in the e.g. USA will be v diff to collectivist culture e.g. Japan - research can't be extrapolated onto collectivist cultures 
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