- Created by: jessicaflora
- Created on: 11-12-18 14:57
Childhood around the world
Childhood is a social construction.
Globalisation: the process of the world becoming more interconnected and similar
98% of all non-illiterates live in developing countries.
There are laws to protect children in the UK:
- Children's Act 1989
- Education Act 2002
- Protection of Children Act 1978
Age of sexual consent in the UK is 16
Age of sexual consent in Malawi is 13
- Children are like 'mini adults'- their clothes and work
- In the Medieval era, the idea of childhood did not exist
- Fatal diseases were prevalent and IMR were extremely high
- Young children were not expected to live for long
- The 20th Century was the 'cent of the child'
- The most important feature of the modern idea of childhood was separateness.
- It is seen as a clear and distinct life stage.
- Children in society occupy a separate status from adults.
- Childhood is 'disappearing at a dazzling speed'
Childhood has gotten better
Children protected by laws:
- Donzelot: Stressed how children needed supervision and protection. Laws such as child protection and cruelty policies were put in place.
- e.g.: smoking in cars with children under 18 is banned.
Evaluation: This does not apply globally. Punch (2001) found that children in Bolivia are expected to take on work responsibilities from the age of 5 and child labour is legal.
Children are an economic liability:
- They are no longer an economic benefit- compulsory education until 18.
- It costs approx. £218,000 to raise a child in the UK
Infant mortality rate has decreased:
- 1900s- 15% of babies died within their first year of birth.
- Today- 0.38% babies died before their first year of birth. (better sanitation, healthcare)
The family has become more child-centered:
- Through leisure time, education, emotional support
Childhood has gotten worse-Inequalities
- McRobbie- Girls are closely socialised and encouraged to stay in the private sphere- bedroom culture.
- They are less likely to be allowed out late out at night than boys.
- Brannen 1994 study- 15-16-year-olds found that Asian parents were more likely than other ethnicities to be strict towards their daughters.
- Howard(2001)- children born into poor families are more likely to die in infancy or childhood, suffer from illnesses/injuries, be shorter in height, do badly in school to be placed on a child protection register.
Over 25% of children live in poverty in the UK
Childhood has gotten worse
Neglect and Abuse :
- Adult control over children can get extreme - physical/ sexual/ emotional abuse
- In 2013, 43,000 children were put on child protection plans.
- AGE PATRIARCHY: adult dominance and having power.
Toxic Childhood- Palmer:
- Due to rapid technological advances and cultural changes in the past 25 years, it has damaged children's physical, emotional and intellectual developments.
- These changes range from junk food, computer games and intensive marketing for children.
Childhood has gotten worse- Controls
Controls over children's:
Access to resources:
- children have limited opportunity to earn money so they remain economically dependent on adults- pocket money.
- Children are closely observed now due to fear of road safety and 'stranger danger'
- Adults control children's daily routines and the speed at which they grow up as they define whether a child is too old or young.
- Adults restrict the ways in which children may touch their own bodies and what they wear.
- 'Childhood is either good or bad, some have desperate lives others do not.'
- Childhood is not universal it is socially constructed and more than just a biological state.