Child Mortality

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Different types of child mortality

  • Neonatal mortality - deaths to infants within their first 28 days of life
  • Post-neonatal mortality - deaths to children between their first 29 days and year of life
  • Infant mortality - deaths to children in their first year of life
  • Toddler mortality - deaths to children within their first two years of life
  • Child mortality - deaths to children within their first four years of life
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Numbers

  • 6.9 million children die every year
  • 99% of these children live in low-income countries e.g. sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia
  • 1,900 children die each day before reaching their 5th birthday
  • 4.4 million children die in their first 28 days of life
  • UNICEF says 2/3rd's of these deaths are preventable
  • They are preventable by immunisations, antibiotics, bed nets, oral rehydration therapy etc
  • 45% of all child deaths linked to malnutriton
  • 12.4 million died before their 5th birthday in 1990 - reduced to 6.9 million by 2011
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Main Causes of Deaths

  • Pneumonia
  • Mealses
  • Neonatal reasons e.g. respiratory problems
  • Malaria
  • HIV
  • Diarrhoea
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UNICEF GOBI

  • 1980's
  • G - Growth monitoring - malnutrition/stunting
  • O - Oral rehydration - diarrhoea
  • B - Breastfeeding - harmful substances in milk formula 
  • I - Immunisations 
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Expanded Program of Immunisation

  • 1970's
  • Covered...
  • Measles
  • Polio
  • Tetanus
  • Whooping cough
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Millennium Development Goal 4

  • Aim to reduce child mortality by 2/3rd's of the 1990 base measure by 2015 
  • 60 countries with worlds highest mortality
  • 7 countries on track to meet the MDG in 2015
  • 39 countries making some progress but with a lot of work still needed
  • 14 countries a serious cause for concern
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Countries with highest child mortality rates

  • All in sub-Saharan Africa except from one..
  • Chad - 20.9%
  • Afghanistan
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Guinnea-Buissau
  • Sierra Leone
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Africa

  • Unresolved challenges in Africa overshadowing high child mortality rates
  • Conflict
  • Food crisis
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Orphanhood
  • Poor sanitation
  • Many deaths in LEDC's go unnoticed as families cannot afford to register their child
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