Child Language Acquisition - Speech

Revision cards going over speech of child language acquisition.

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Pre-Verbal Stage

  • 0 - 4 months - Vegetative - sounds of discomfort
  • 4 - 7 months - Cooing - comfort and vowel sounds
  • 6 - 12 months - Babbling - consonant and vowel sounds
  • 1 - 12 months - Proto-Words - Word-like sounds
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Lexical and Grammatical Development

  • 12 - 18 months: Holophrastic/one-word stage
  • 18 - 24 months: Two-word stage
  • 14 - 36 months: Telegraphic (3 or more words)
  • 36+ months: Post-telegraphic (grammatically complex)
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Phonological Errors

  • Deletion - Omitting final consonant
  • Subsitition - Replacing one sound for another
  • Addition - Adding extra vowel
  • Assimilation - Change one consonant for another
  • Reduplication - Repeating syllables
  • Consonant cluster reductions
  • Deletion of unstressed syllables
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Lexical Development

  • Proto-word - invented word
  • Holophrase - One word for many ideas
  • Overextension - Catergorical (e.g. "apple" for all round fruit), Analogical (e.g. "ball" for round fruit) and Mistmatch Statements (e.g. "duck" for empty pond)
  • Underextension
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Aitchison and Development

  • 1. Labelling - Link words to objects
  • 2. Packaging - Explore lables and what they can apply to
  • 3. Network Building - Making connections between words, understanding similarities and opposites in meanings
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Piaget and Development

  • 2 years - Sensor/Motor - Experience world through senses
                                           - understand object exists out of sight
  • 2 - 7 years - Pre-operational - Ego-centric language
                                                    - Competant language and motor skills
  • 7 - 11 years - Concrete Operational - Logical thinking about concrete evetns
  • 11+ years - Formal Operational - Abstract reasoning
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Grammatical Development

  • Synactical
  • Morphilogical advances - Inflectional (alteration to make new grammatical forms) and Derivational (creation of new words by adding prefixes and suffixes)

Mistakes of syntax are called "virtuous errors"

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Halliday's Functions

  • Instrumental - Fulfill a need
  • Regulatory - Influence behaviour of others
  • Interactional - Maintain social relationships
  • Personal - Convery opinion/identity
  • Representational - Convery facts/information
  • Imaginative
  • Heuristic - Learn about environment
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Dore's Functions

  • Labelling - Naming person/object
  • Repeating - Repeating adult word/phrase
  • Answering
  • Requesting action
  • Calling - Getting attention by shouting
  • Greeting
  • Protesting - Objecting to requests by others
  • Practicing - Using language when no adult is present
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Child Directed Speech

  • Repetition
  • Higher pitch
  • Childs name, not pronouns
  • Present tense
  • One-word utterances
  • Fewer verbs/modifiers
  • Concrete nouns
  • Expansion/recasts
  • Yes/no questioning
  • Exaggerating pauses/turn taking cues
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Behavourist

  • Skinner
  • Children repeat what they hear
  • Passive form of CLA
  • Children recieve positive reinforcement and repeat behaviour again
  • Regardless of understanding meaning
  • Tend to make grammatical errors
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Innateness

  • Chomsky
  • Natural capacity to learn
  • Triggered by hearing language around them
  • Start learning language months after birth (babbling)
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Cognitive

  • Piaget
  • Children's language develops as their understanding of the world does
  • Language gradually becomes sophisticated
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Interaction

  • Bruner
  • Interaction with primary caregiver is important
  • "Caretaker speech" and "child directed speech" - important terms
  • Children who are spoken to in CDS develop language quicker
  • Children who are negatively corrected develop slowly
  • Children use language to communicate with those around them and society is based upon this premise of language
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