Child Language Acquisition-Speaking

HideShow resource information

Pre-Verbal Stage.

Vegative            Sounds of discomfort or refelxive actions                  0-4 months

Cooing              Comfort sounds and open mouth vowel sounds       4-7 months

Babbling            Repeated patterns of consonant & vowel sounds     6-12 months

Proto-words      Made up words which are consistently used             9-12 months

1 of 11

Lexical & Grammatical Stages of Development.

Holophrastic/1 word   1 word utterances                                                  12-18 months

2 word                         2 word combinations                                             18-24 months

Telegraphic                 3 or more words combined                                    24-36 months

Post telegraphic         More grammatically complex combinations           36+ months

2 of 11

Early Phonological Errors

Deletion - Omitting the final consonant - do(g), cu(p)

Substitution - Substituting 1 sound for another - 'pip' for 'ship'

Addition - Adding a vowel at the end of a word - doggie

Assimilation - Changing one consonant/vowel for another - 'gog' for 'dog'

Reduplication - Repeating a whole syllable - dada, mama

Consonant cluster reductions - Reducing 2 consonants to a smaller unit -                     'pider' for 'spider'

Deletion of unstressed syllables - Omitting the opening syllable in polysyllabic words -    'nana' for 'banana'

3 of 11

Rate of Lexical Development & Aitchinson's Stages

12 months                                                         50 words

24 months                                                         200 words

36 months                                                         2000 words


Labelling - Linking words to objects

Packaging - Exploring labels and what they apply to (over/under extension)

Network-building - Making connections between words and understanding similarities and opposites in meanings

4 of 11

Rescorla's Overextensions.

Categorical overextension - using the same for different things within the same category - using apple for all round fruit

Analogical overextension - Using the same name for things in different categories based on a physical/functional similarity - using ball for a round fruit

Mismatch statements - One words sentence when a child makes a connection between one object and another - saying 'duck' when looking at an empty pond

5 of 11

Piaget's Stages of Linguistic Development.

Sensorimotor - up to 2 years - Children learn from environment. Lexical choices are concrete (nouns). Object permanence develops.

Pre-operational - 2-7 years - Language and motor skills develop & become more competent. Language is ego-centric - either focused on the child or used by the child when alone.

Concrete operational - 7-11 years - Children think logically about concrete events.

Formal operational - 11+ years - Abstract reasoning skills develop.

6 of 11

Bellugi's Stages of Negative Formation.

Stage           The child                                                                Example

    1               No/not used at beginning/end of sentence           'No wear shoes'

    2               Moves the no/not to the middle                             'I no want it'

    3               Attaches negative to auxilary verbs                       'No I don't want to go to nursery'                                                                              go to nursery'

7 of 11

Halliday's Functions of Speech.

Instrumental - To fulfil a need - 'want milk'

Regulatory - To influence others - 'pick up'

Interactional - To develop/maintain social relations - 'love you'

Personal - To convey opinions, ideas and identify - 'me like Charlie and Lola'

Representational - To convey facts and information - 'it hot'

Imaginative - To create an imaginary world - 'me shopkeeper'

Heuristic - To learn about the environment - 'wassat?'

8 of 11

Dore's Language Functions.

Labelling - Naming a person, object or thing

Repeating - Repeating an adult word or utterance

Answering - Responding to an utterance of another speaker

Requesting action - Asking for something to be done for them

Calling - Getting attention by shouting

Greeting - Greeting someone or something

Protesting - Objecting to requests from others

Practising - Using language when no adult is present

9 of 11

CDS (child-directed speech)

Repetition/repeated sentence frames

Higher pitch

Using child's name instead of pronoun

Present tense

One word utterance/short sentences

Fewer verbs/modifiers

Concrete nouns


Closed Questions

Exaggerated Pauses

10 of 11

Language Acquisition Theories.

Nativist - Humans have an inbuilt ability to acquire language - Chomsky & Lenneburg

Behaviourist - Language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement - Skinner

Social Interactionist - Child language is developed through interactions with adults - Bruner & Vygotsky

Cognitive - Language acquisition is part of a wider development of understanding that develops - Vygotsky & Piaget

11 of 11


No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Child language acquisition resources »