Vegative Sounds of discomfort or refelxive actions 0-4 months
Cooing Comfort sounds and open mouth vowel sounds 4-7 months
Babbling Repeated patterns of consonant & vowel sounds 6-12 months
Proto-words Made up words which are consistently used 9-12 months
Lexical & Grammatical Stages of Development.
Holophrastic/1 word 1 word utterances 12-18 months
2 word 2 word combinations 18-24 months
Telegraphic 3 or more words combined 24-36 months
Post telegraphic More grammatically complex combinations 36+ months
Early Phonological Errors
Deletion - Omitting the final consonant - do(g), cu(p)
Substitution - Substituting 1 sound for another - 'pip' for 'ship'
Addition - Adding a vowel at the end of a word - doggie
Assimilation - Changing one consonant/vowel for another - 'gog' for 'dog'
Reduplication - Repeating a whole syllable - dada, mama
Consonant cluster reductions - Reducing 2 consonants to a smaller unit - 'pider' for 'spider'
Deletion of unstressed syllables - Omitting the opening syllable in polysyllabic words - 'nana' for 'banana'
Rate of Lexical Development & Aitchinson's Stages
12 months 50 words
24 months 200 words
36 months 2000 words
Labelling - Linking words to objects
Packaging - Exploring labels and what they apply to (over/under extension)
Network-building - Making connections between words and understanding similarities and opposites in meanings
Categorical overextension - using the same for different things within the same category - using apple for all round fruit
Analogical overextension - Using the same name for things in different categories based on a physical/functional similarity - using ball for a round fruit
Mismatch statements - One words sentence when a child makes a connection between one object and another - saying 'duck' when looking at an empty pond
Piaget's Stages of Linguistic Development.
Sensorimotor - up to 2 years - Children learn from environment. Lexical choices are concrete (nouns). Object permanence develops.
Pre-operational - 2-7 years - Language and motor skills develop & become more competent. Language is ego-centric - either focused on the child or used by the child when alone.
Concrete operational - 7-11 years - Children think logically about concrete events.
Formal operational - 11+ years - Abstract reasoning skills develop.
Bellugi's Stages of Negative Formation.
Stage The child Example
1 No/not used at beginning/end of sentence 'No wear shoes'
2 Moves the no/not to the middle 'I no want it'
3 Attaches negative to auxilary verbs 'No I don't want to go to nursery' go to nursery'
Halliday's Functions of Speech.
Instrumental - To fulfil a need - 'want milk'
Regulatory - To influence others - 'pick up'
Interactional - To develop/maintain social relations - 'love you'
Personal - To convey opinions, ideas and identify - 'me like Charlie and Lola'
Representational - To convey facts and information - 'it hot'
Imaginative - To create an imaginary world - 'me shopkeeper'
Heuristic - To learn about the environment - 'wassat?'
Dore's Language Functions.
Labelling - Naming a person, object or thing
Repeating - Repeating an adult word or utterance
Answering - Responding to an utterance of another speaker
Requesting action - Asking for something to be done for them
Calling - Getting attention by shouting
Greeting - Greeting someone or something
Protesting - Objecting to requests from others
Practising - Using language when no adult is present
CDS (child-directed speech)
Repetition/repeated sentence frames
Using child's name instead of pronoun
One word utterance/short sentences
Language Acquisition Theories.
Nativist - Humans have an inbuilt ability to acquire language - Chomsky & Lenneburg
Behaviourist - Language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement - Skinner
Social Interactionist - Child language is developed through interactions with adults - Bruner & Vygotsky
Cognitive - Language acquisition is part of a wider development of understanding that develops - Vygotsky & Piaget