Features of CDS
- Repetition and/or repeated sentence frames
- A higher pitch, exaggerated intonation and stress
- Use of the child's name rather than pronouns (some research disagress with this however)
- The present tense
- One word utterances and short elliptical sentences
- Fewer verbs/modifiers
- Concrete nouns (instead of abstract)
- Yes/no questions
- Exaggerated pauses for turn-taking
- Expansions (developing the child's utterances into a longer, more meaningful form)
- Recasts (commenting on, expanding and rephrasing a child's utterance - shows the child there are other ways of using the lexis thye just used)
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Lev Vygotsky (Published in 1962)
- Social Development Theory
- More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) is anyone wiith a better understanding or higher ability level than the learner.
- Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is the distance between a student's ability to perform a task under guidnce and independently. Learning happens in this zone.
- The MKO helps the learner move through the ZPD by example and scaffolding, and this can be applied to CDS
- All the features of CDS have a purpose (the general one is to aid language learning) and can be seen as a form of scaffolding, where the carer (MKO) helps the child (learner) learn to communicate effectively and independently (move through the ZPD)
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- Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) aids language learning.
- Ritualised activities, e.g. mealtimes, bedtimes, reading books, reinforce the habits the carers try to teach their children during them - this helps the LASS to aid development.
- Carers make rules and meanings of these interactions clear and predictable so children can learn.
- E.g. The game 'peekaboo' can help teach turn-taking, formulaic utterances and syntax.
- Bruner also helped develop the idea of 'scaffolding'. Adults help children to advance cognitively by giving them support and examples.
- As the child's abilities increase, the support is gradually withdrawn, untilt he child is independent.
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