Child Directed Speech (CLA)

Revision cards about child directed speech, with theorists.

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Features of CDS

  • Repetition and/or repeated sentence frames 
  • A higher pitch, exaggerated intonation and stress
  • Use of the child's name rather than pronouns (some research disagress with this however)
  • The present tense
  • One word utterances and short elliptical sentences
  • Fewer verbs/modifiers
  • Concrete nouns (instead of abstract)
  • Yes/no questions
  • Imperatives
  • Exaggerated pauses for turn-taking
  • Expansions (developing the child's utterances into a longer, more meaningful form)
  • Recasts (commenting on, expanding and rephrasing a child's utterance - shows the child there are other ways of using the lexis thye just used)
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Lev Vygotsky (Published in 1962)

  • Social Development Theory 
  • More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) is anyone wiith a better understanding or higher ability level than the learner.
  • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is the distance between a student's ability to perform a task under guidnce and independently. Learning happens in this zone.
  • The MKO helps the learner move through the ZPD by example and scaffolding, and this can be applied to CDS
  • All the features of CDS have a purpose (the general one is to aid language learning) and can be seen as a form of scaffolding, where the carer (MKO) helps the child (learner) learn to communicate effectively and independently (move through the ZPD) 
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Jerome Bruner

  • Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) aids language learning.
  • Ritualised activities, e.g. mealtimes, bedtimes, reading books, reinforce the habits the carers try to teach their children during them - this helps the LASS to aid development. 
  • Carers make rules and meanings of these interactions clear and predictable so children can learn. 
  • E.g. The game 'peekaboo' can help teach turn-taking, formulaic utterances and syntax. 
  • Bruner also helped develop the idea of 'scaffolding'. Adults help children to advance cognitively by giving them support and examples. 
  • As the child's abilities increase, the support is gradually withdrawn, untilt he child is independent. 
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