- Slower, clearer pronounciation
- More pauses
- Higher pitched
- Exaggerated intonation and stress
- Repetition and partial repetition of the child's name
- Simple constructions
- Frequent use of imperatives
- High degree of repetition
- Frequent questions
- Use of personal names instead of pronouns (‘Mummy’ instead of ‘I’)
- Repeated sentence frames
- Absence of past tense
- Large number of one word utterances
- Simpler, more restricted vocabulary
- Diminutive forms (‘doggie’)
- Concrete language
- Fewer verbs, modifiers and function words
- Frequent use of the child's name and absence of pronouns
Males: Wider vocabulary, ask more direct questions, more physical, less likely to understand the baby.
Female: Opposite of the male, more conversations.
Effects of CDS
- More accessible
- Phonology: Retains attention
- Questions: improves auxiliary verbs
- Introduce conventions of conversation
- Some argue baby talk interferes with language development because it provides children with an inarticulate/inaccurate portrayal of speech.
- In cultures where adults do not use CDS children seem to acquire their native language at normal rates of development.