Essay Structure (key constituents of spoken language)



Outline the stage of development the child is in or the meta function -  consider MAFFT, e.g. mode: spoken/ written and the text type, funtion: mention Halliday's metafunctions. 

Comsky's universal stages of development: Pre verbal - before birth, crying, cooing, early babbling. Verbal - late babbling, holophrastic, two word utterances, telegraphic, complex 

Eric Lenneberg: The critical period hypothesis (between 2-7 years old)

MAK Halliday's Taxonomy: Meta functions - instrumental, regulatory, heurisitc, imaginative, representational, performative, interactional, personal.

Connections to MAFFT

Mode - is it spontaneous, scripted, partially scripted 

Audience - primary or secondary caregivers, friends, internal/external audience 

Feild - object stimulus, particular feild with use of feild specific lexis 

Function - Taxonomy                       Tenor - formal/informal linking to relaxed language use 

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Point out phonological and prosodic features within the text with how it links to the interaction 

Possible terms: Prosodic features - pitch, pace, emphatic stress, upward/downward intonation. Accent - recieved pronounciation, regional dialect. Phoneme, phonetics, pronounciation. 

International phonetic alphabet

Manner of articulation: plosive, fircative, affricate, nasal, lateral, approximant 

Place of articulation: labial, dental, lveolar, post alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal

Terms related to this: stressed/unstressed syllables, consonant clusters, deletion, substitution, assimilation, reduplicated monosyllables, phonemic expansion/ contraction 

- doesnt really need theory as the IPA is counted in AO2 however there may be links to an object stimulus, imitation of an MKO and evidence of BF Skinner's behaviourism.

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Discuss language acquisition of grammatical rules and the stucture of words 

Prefix: addition at the beginning of a root word / Suffix: addition at the end of a word / Infix: addition in the middle od a word / Free morpheme: the root word which can stand alone / Bound morpheme: the affixation that cannot stand alone 

May have inflectional affixations that serve a function to the root word, this might be to form the past/ present oarticiples, for pluralisation, etc. 

Links to theory

Jean Berko Gleason's WUG test - how a child can learn grammatical rules and then apply them to all words, athough not always correctly even when they dont understand the meaning. - because they have not developed meta lingustic awareness (understanding application of language)

May also spark relevance to - the cognitive theory, Skinner's behaviourism, Chomsky's LAD where these rules are innate within children, influence of an MKO or object stimulus

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Discuss understanding of the childs use of lexemes - the quantity and difficulty of words, the childs use of semantics 

Possible terminology use: lexemes, word classes, content words, function words, high/low frequency lexis, mono/di/poly sylabic lexis, over extension, underextension, holophrases, proto words, two word utterances, pivot words, negation, reduplicated monosyllables etc. 

Links to theorists

Jean Atchison - labelling, packaging and network building 

Vygotsky - social development theory and influence of an MKO 'what a child can do in cooperation today they can do alone tomorrow' 

Jean Piaget - cognitive approach, to use language associated with a concept a child must indertand the concept first 

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Involves looking at word order, ellipted words and grammatical constructions.

Possible terms to include: syntax, word classes, clause elements - subject/verb/object/compliment/adverbial, active voice (S+V+O), passive voice (O+V+S), elipted constructions, ommission of auxilary verbs, ommission of function words, inverted syntax, holophrases, two word utterances etc. 

Relevant theories linking to syntax 

Chomsky's universal stages of development with how the child's use of grammatical structures links to their age. 

BF Skinner - argue that a child's use of syntax links to their native language which has therefore been imitated by an MKO 

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Discuss the child's acquisition of conversational skills and their ability to maintain an interaction. 

Terms to look for: conversational cues and markers, prosodic features and responses to this, paralinguistic features, politeness markers, discourse length, sentence/utterance sturtures (connected clauses, subordination, turn maintaining etc.), multiple subordination, conversational maxims, pragmatics, topic loop/shift, locution

In most cases uses and evidene of these terms will be culturally specific

Relevant theory linking to discourse 

Grice's conversational maxims will almost always be prevalent to discuss how the child maintains social interactions. In conjunction with this, imitation of an MKO is important to analyse. 

Michael Tomsello - the usage base thory, emphasises the importance of social interaction on language acquisition through intention reading and pattern finding. 

Mention the debate between nativism and behaviourism.

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