- Created by: Natalie
- Created on: 14-01-20 15:09
Kroll's Writing Stages
- Preparatory stage (up to 6): Children developing fine motor skills, practising holding a pen/pencil. Starting to understand basic spelling principles
- Consolidation stage (7-8): Writing as they speak, using short declariative sentences. Using mainly the conjunctions 'but' and 'and'. Often incomplete sentences.
- Differentiation stage (9-10): Beginning to differentiate between speech and writing. Different styles of writing understood. There may still be errors, and writing guides may be provided. Writing may reflet thoughts and feelings.
- Integration stage (mid-teens): Developing own personal style. Able to alter writing according to audience and purpose .
Rules vs Creativity
Rule Based Approach:
- Children need to understand the conventions of writing (e.g. grammatical rules, spelling.) in order to be able to develop theirwriting that is more understandable and appropriate.
- National Curriculm follows this approach
Creative Based Approach:
- Children should be able to experiment with language without strict correction. Child less likely to afraid of making mistakes in their writing.
- John Abbot: the children who have the most freedom and independence might be the children that thrive
- Three key types of writing
1. Expressive = children develop first. It will take the first person and allow children to explore own identity and preferences.
2. Poetic = Allows children to be creativewhilst also encouraging them to think about the craft of writing by including imagery.
3. Transactional = Writer is able to separate own identity from the writing. Writing takes an impersonal tone, and far removed from expressive writing
Gentry's Spelling Stages
1. Pre-communicative stage = random letters and symbols appear with no sound to letter connection
2. Semi-phonetictage = letters used to represent whole words. Writing formed from left to right, with some letter to sound connection
3. Phonteic stage = Spelling based on the sound of words
4. Transitional stage = Spelling combines phonetic and visual approaches. Silent letters sometimes acknowledged.
5. Conventional stage = Difficult spellings learnt, words with altherative spellings learnt.
- Places emphasis on accuracy and rules
- By the end of KS1, a child should be able to proof read for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation
- By the end of KS3, studnets hould be taught to write accurately, effectively and with fluency.
- In order to achieve academic success, high degree of technical accuracy is needed at all ages