Michael Halliday - 7 functions of language
- instrumental - to express needs; e.g. 'want juice'
- regulatory - to tell others what to do; e.g. 'go away'
- interactional - to make contact with others, form relationships; e.g. 'Me good boy'
- personal - to express the personal preferences and identity of the speaker; e.g. 'I love you mummy'
- heuristic - to gain knowledge about the environment; e.g. 'what that tractor doing'
- imaginative - stories and jokes, creating imaginary environment
- representational - to convey facts and information
John Dore - infant language functions
- labelling - naming, identifying
- repeating - echoing something said by an adult
- answering - responding
- requesting action - demanding food, assistance...
- calling - shouting to attract attention
- practising - trying to talk when no adult is present
Noam Chomsky - Language Acquisition Device, Univer
- LAD - Language Acquisition Device. Children are born with the ability to talk (innate), they know linguistic rules
- Universal Grammar - all languages share the same principles of grammar
Jerome Bruner - L.A.S.S.
Learning is an active process, everything is context sensitive to each social individual.
L.A.S.S. - language acquisition support system - adult caregivers provide support through:
- gaining the child's attention
B.F. Skinner - behaviourism
Environment has a great impact on speech development. Positive/negative reinforcement - if a child does not respond to correction, according to Skinner they are outside of the development capability.
Lev Vygotsky - play/interactionist theory
Cognitive development is driven by social interaction; children's learning is social in nature; they learn from those around them with scaffolding.
Jean Piaget - cognitive theory
Development of logical and reasoning skills, eager to learn and explore their environment, child's role is a conversation is more important
- sensorimotor stage - child experiences word through senses, concrete lexis rather than abstract, object permanence develops
- pre-operational stage - language and motor skills developand become more component, egocentric language
- concrete operational stage - children begin to think logically about concrete events
- formal operational stage - abstract reasoning skills develop
Eric Lennenberg - critical period
Lennenberg agreed with Chomsky's LAD theory, however, he said that there is a critical period (12-13 years old) in which children have the ability to learn language.
Catherine Garvey - sociodramatic play
In sociodramatic play, language used by children is affected by the role they adapt.
Other types of play: sensori-motor play, constructions, play with rules.
- Katherine Nelson identified four categories for first words: naming, actions, describing, social/personal words. She proved that 60% of child's first words are nouns.
- Jean Berko Gleason and Roger Brown said that phonological development depends on the physical concept of producing sounds.
- Alex Cruttenden found out that only adults acknowledge the impact of intonation on speech.
- Pinker - language instinct - we have an innate ability and capacity for learning language (language is an instinct)
Common for children to overextend word's meaning, as children link objects with similar qualities.
There are 3 types:
- categorical - the name of a member of a category is extended to all members (apple for all fruit)
- analogical - a word for one object is extended to one in another category with the same physical extension (ball for all round fruit)
- mismatch statements - one-word utterances that appear quite abstract ('duck' when looking at an empty pond)