Chemistry salters unit F332

elements from the sea, definitions and detailed overview of topics.

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  • Created by: N.G
  • Created on: 17-04-11 11:46

Keywords/Definitions for elements from the sea 1

oxidation: is the loss of electrons

reduction: is the gain of electrons

oxidising agent: removes electrons from something else

reducing agent: gives electrons to something else

acid: a proton (H+) donor      base: a proton (H+) acceptor

oxidation state: charge on an ion or charge it would have if it were ionic.

frist ionisation: amount of energy needed to remove one electron from 1 mole of gaseous atoms

formula to learn:   moles = concentration x volume (in dm3)

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Keywords/Definitions for atmosphere 2

activation enthalpy: minimum kinetic energy required by a pair of colliding particles before reaction occurs.

homolytic fission: when bond breaks and one of the two shared electrons goes to each atom.

heterolytic fission: when the bond breaks and both of the shared electrons goes to just one of the atoms.

radical: atom with a very reactive unpaired electron.

hydrolysis: breaking down of substance with water.

substitution: where functional group is replaced by another group.

nucleophile: species which can donate a pair of electrons to a positively charged to carbon atom, to form a covalent bond.

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Keywords/Definitions for atmosphere 3

carbocation: is a positively charged carbon atom (i.e its short of an electron).

dynamic equilibrium: occurs when rate of forward reaction = rate of the backward reaction. Both reactions are continuing but the concentrations of both the reactants and products remain constant.

Le Chateliers Principle: if a system is at equilibrium and a change is made in any of the conditions, then the sytem responds to counteract the change as much as possible.

Electronegativity: measure of each atoms attraction for bonding electrons.

formula to learn: E= hv

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Keywords/Definitions for Polymer revolution 1

addition polymerisation: reaction in which polymers are formed by small molecules (monomers) joining together.

addition reaction: occurs when a molecule of a substanceis joined to another substance by the formation of new covalent bonds.

Electrophile: is a positive ion or molecule with a partial positive charge on one of the atoms which will react by accepting a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.

hydration: is the addition of water in a reaction.

thermoplastic: plastics with no cross links (with covalent bonds) which therefore can be easily melted and remoulded.

thermosetting platic: plastics with cross linking (with covalent bonds) and so do not melt and keep their shape upon heating.

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Keywords/Definitions for Polymer revolution 2

Co-polymer: is a polymer formed from more than one different type of monomer (e.g ethane and propene)

atactic: is an irregular structure (amorphous) of a polymer where the side groups are radomly orientated.

isotactic: regular structure (crystaline) of a polymer where side groups have the same orientation along the chain.

syndiotactic: structure of a polymer where the orientation of the side groups alternates along the chain (etween atactic and isotactic).

E/Z isomerism: occurs when geometric isomers have the same molecular and structural formulae, but different spatial arrangements of the atoms in the molecules  i.e E and Z isomers formed when double bonds present due to inability to rotate around the double bond.      

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Keywords/Definitions for Polymer revolution 3

[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\"> Z =[/strong] same side (ciz)               </span>

[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\"> E =[/strong] opposite sides (trans)</span>

[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\">dehydration:[/strong] is the removal of a water molecule from a  molecule of a reactant in a reaction (e.g froma n alcohol to produce an alkene)</span>

[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\">elimination recation:[/strong] is the reverse on an addition reaction,a molecule is removed froma molecule of reactant.</span>

[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\">crystaline:[/strong] molecules all line up in a regular pattern.</span>

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helpful (:



Thank you so much!



not very helpful

Lorna Mashongamhende


so good 

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