Keywords/Definitions for elements from the sea 1
oxidation: is the loss of electrons
reduction: is the gain of electrons
oxidising agent: removes electrons from something else
reducing agent: gives electrons to something else
acid: a proton (H+) donor base: a proton (H+) acceptor
oxidation state: charge on an ion or charge it would have if it were ionic.
frist ionisation: amount of energy needed to remove one electron from 1 mole of gaseous atoms
formula to learn: moles = concentration x volume (in dm3)
Keywords/Definitions for atmosphere 2
activation enthalpy: minimum kinetic energy required by a pair of colliding particles before reaction occurs.
homolytic fission: when bond breaks and one of the two shared electrons goes to each atom.
heterolytic fission: when the bond breaks and both of the shared electrons goes to just one of the atoms.
radical: atom with a very reactive unpaired electron.
hydrolysis: breaking down of substance with water.
substitution: where functional group is replaced by another group.
nucleophile: species which can donate a pair of electrons to a positively charged to carbon atom, to form a covalent bond.
Keywords/Definitions for atmosphere 3
carbocation: is a positively charged carbon atom (i.e its short of an electron).
dynamic equilibrium: occurs when rate of forward reaction = rate of the backward reaction. Both reactions are continuing but the concentrations of both the reactants and products remain constant.
Le Chateliers Principle: if a system is at equilibrium and a change is made in any of the conditions, then the sytem responds to counteract the change as much as possible.
Electronegativity: measure of each atoms attraction for bonding electrons.
formula to learn: E= hv
Keywords/Definitions for Polymer revolution 1
addition polymerisation: reaction in which polymers are formed by small molecules (monomers) joining together.
addition reaction: occurs when a molecule of a substanceis joined to another substance by the formation of new covalent bonds.
Electrophile: is a positive ion or molecule with a partial positive charge on one of the atoms which will react by accepting a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
hydration: is the addition of water in a reaction.
thermoplastic: plastics with no cross links (with covalent bonds) which therefore can be easily melted and remoulded.
thermosetting platic: plastics with cross linking (with covalent bonds) and so do not melt and keep their shape upon heating.
Keywords/Definitions for Polymer revolution 2
Co-polymer: is a polymer formed from more than one different type of monomer (e.g ethane and propene)
atactic: is an irregular structure (amorphous) of a polymer where the side groups are radomly orientated.
isotactic: regular structure (crystaline) of a polymer where side groups have the same orientation along the chain.
syndiotactic: structure of a polymer where the orientation of the side groups alternates along the chain (etween atactic and isotactic).
E/Z isomerism: occurs when geometric isomers have the same molecular and structural formulae, but different spatial arrangements of the atoms in the molecules i.e E and Z isomers formed when double bonds present due to inability to rotate around the double bond.
Keywords/Definitions for Polymer revolution 3
[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\"> Z =[/strong] same side (ciz) </span>
[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\"> E =[/strong] opposite sides (trans)</span>
[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\">dehydration:[/strong] is the removal of a water molecule from a molecule of a reactant in a reaction (e.g froma n alcohol to produce an alkene)</span>
[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\">elimination recation:[/strong] is the reverse on an addition reaction,a molecule is removed froma molecule of reactant.</span>
[strong]<span style=\"color: #ff00ff;\">crystaline:[/strong] molecules all line up in a regular pattern.</span>