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covalent bonding

the electrostatic (+ - ) attraction between oppositely charged ions usually formed by electron transfer from metal to non metal.

These strong bonds hold oppositlet charged ions( metal cations and non metal anions) together in non metal compounds. Form giant ionic structures. Example Sodium Chloride.

High melting and boiling points.

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Covalent bonding

The electrostatic attraction between posotive nuclei of a pair of atoms and the negative charge of shared electrons between the atoms.

These strong bonds hold atoms together either in molecules or in giant atomic structures of  non metalic elements and non metal compounds.

The sgtength of covalent bonds explains the very high melting and boiling points of giant atomic structures but does not influence the melting and boiling points of molecular subsatnces.

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metalic bonding

Metallic bonding is the electromagnetic interaction between delocalized electrons, called conduction electrons, gathered in an "electron sea", and the metallic nuclei within metals. Understood as the sharing of "free" electrons among a lattice of positively charged ions (cations), metallic bonding is sometimes compared with that of molten salts; however, this simplistic view holds true for very few metals. In a more quantum-mechanical view, the conduction electrons divide their density equally over all atoms that function as neutral (non-charged) entities. Metallic bonding accounts for many physical properties of metals, such as strength, malleability, ductility, thermal and electrical conductivity, opacity, and luster.[1][2][3][4]

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Possitivley charged ions attracted towards the cathode during electrolysis.

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Negativley charged ions attracted to the anode during electrolysis.

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